MoD week 2-3 chronic and acute inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MoD week 2-3 chronic and acute inflammation Deck (29):
1

what is acute inflammation?

response of living tissue to injury

2

what are the clinical signs of acute inflammation?

rubor, color, tumour, dolor, loss of function

3

what is vasodilation in acute inflammation?

increase permeabiity, and hydrostatic pressure to form exudate
gaps in endothelium allows exudation (plasma proteins), adherence, margination and emigration through basement membrane
recruits macro and lymphocytes

4

what are the mediators of acute inflammation?

histamine (stored in mast cells granules), serotonin (stimulate fibroblasts & platelets), prostaglandins (vasodilate, cause pain & fever), leucotrines (permeability), bradykinin (dilator, produce pain), complement (C3a, C4a, C5a), cytokines, endotoxins

5

conditions of acute inflammation

hereditary angiodema
alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency
CGD (chronic granulomatous disease)

6

what is hereditary angiodema?

C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency
patient has attacks of non-itchy cutaneous angio-oedema
death in larengeal involvement

7

what is a-1 antitrypsin deficiency?

no inhibition of proteases
breaking down lung tissue causing emphysema

8

what is chronic granulomatous disease?

no O2 burst so granulomas formed everywhere
(unable to generate free radicals)
phagocytes can't kill them and no free radicals leading to chronic infections

9

what causes chronic inflammation

takes over from acute
begins denovo (autoimmune)
alongside acute (abscess) - prolonged exposure to toxic agents
chronic persistent infections (arise denovo)

10

what are the processes of neutrophils working in acute inflammation?

margination - stasis causes neutrophils to line at edge of endothelium
rolling - neutrophils roll along endothelium
adhesion - to endothelium
emigration - of neutrophils out of capillary walls

11

What are the possible complications of chronic inflammation?

granulomas,
excessive fibrosis: fibroblasts stimulated by cytokines (excess collagen production)
impaired function: myofibroblasts contract e.g. blocking flow duct of liver
atrophy: muscle wasting
tissue destruction

12

What are giant cells?

fusion of macrophages due to frustrated phagocytosis

13

What are the 3 types of giant cells?

langans
foreign body
toutons

14

what are langans giant cells?

TB
have a nucleus like horseshoe - periphery

15

What are foreign body giant cells

present if there are foreign bodies
random nuclei

16

what are toutons giant cells

in lesions with high lipid content e.g. fat necrosis + xanthoma
ring nuclei in centre of cell, can see foam cells (macrophage ingest oxidised lipids)

17

what are the principle cells of chronic inflammation?

macrophage
lymphocytes
eosinophils
fibroblasts

18

what is the funciton of macrophage?

phagocytosis, present antigens to immune system
stimulate angiogenesis

19

function of lymphocyte?

B type (plasma cells) produce antibodies
T type (killer cells) + cytotoxic functions, process antigens, secrete cytokines

20

function of eosinophils

allergic rections, parasitic infestations

21

function of fibroblasts

make collagen, elastin + GAG, differentiate into myofibriblasts (cells that can contract)

22

major clinical examples of chronic inflammation

chronic cholecystitis
peptic ulcer
ulcerative colitis
chrons
cirrhosis
grave's
RA

23

what is chronic cholecystitis?

repeated acute inflammation leading to fibrosis of the gall bladder

24

what is peptic ulcer?

helicobacter pylori
imbalance between mucosal defence and acid production
necrosis

25

what is ulcerative colitis?

colon inflammed, superficial, cholectomy

26

what is chron's disease?

chronic inflammation of all of GI, transmural, treat with removal

27

what is cirrhosis?

fibrosis and impaired function
scarring of liver

28

what is grave's?

hyperthyroidism
heat intolerance, weight loss, high BMR, tachycardia, anxiety

29

What is rheumatoid arthiritis?

localised autoimmune to joints, symmetrical