Flashcards in Modern Britain COPY Deck (32):
What year was the Sexual Offences Act?
What year was the Terrorism Act?
What is a hate crime?
A crime that is motivated by prejudice against a victim
What is terrorism?
Use of violence, fear and intimidation to publicise political views
When were women recruited in policing
How do police work alongside communities to prevent crime?
They work with schools to educate young children, they give people advice on making their homes more secure
When was the abolition of the death penalty?
1965 the formal ending of death penalty in Britain
An example of a controversial execution?
Timothy Evans, Derek Bentley, Ruth Ellis
Why was the case of Bentley controversial?
He had learning difficulites and a low mental age and despite this he was convicted of a crime he hadn't commited.
In 1896 what change in prison systems occured?
Mentally ill prisoners were treated separately to other prisoners
What was the new focus of prisons after 1933?
The new focus was getting prisoners ready for life after prison and intergrating with society.
What was the purpose of borstals?
To ensure that young convicts were separated from older criminals.
Who were the Conscientious Objectors?
Those who refused to fight, some because of their religous beliefs or political reasons that convinced them the aims of war were wrong
Why was Christopher Craig imprisoned rather than hanged?
He was a minor which meant he was protected by law from being executed.
What does age of criminal responsibilty mean?
The age that a person is able to understand a crime and the effects of the crime. Refers to mental state of crimjnal
What is biometric screening used for?
Restricts access to data and places by using fingerprints or eye patterns.
What is the role of forensic investigators?
They gather and preserve physical evidence, and document their activities through sketches and photos.
What is an injunction ?
An order issued by a court to forbid a particular action/behaviour.
Name four new crimes of the 20th century?
racism, car crime, computer crime, identity theft, terrorism, discrimination by; age, sex, culture, religion
Name three old crimes that are still a problem in the 20th century?
poaching, theft, murder, arson, smuggling
Name three causes for the rise in juvenile crime in the 20th century?
Could include parenting, media, materialism, drugs and alcohol, loss of community, cars, poverty and inequality, punishment is too slow, unemployment, lack of discipline, failure of the education system, punishment is too soft
Name three punishments used for juvenile criminals in the 20th century.
Examples would be curfews, tagging, ASBOs, Juvenile Detention Centres, suspended sentences, prison
Name three problems still facing the police by 1900
poor training, poor pay, isolation on the beat with only a whistle to call for help, more than 200 forces with their own rules, local record keeping was poor, no centralised records of criminals making it difficult for neighbouring forces to work together
Give five examples showing changes in the police force in the 20th century
weapons, transport, crime detection, training, recruitment, communication, record keeping, specialisations, organisation
Name three examples of work a police officer might find themselves doing in the 20th century besides catching criminals.
managing disorderly behaviour, attending domestic disturbances, policing entertainment/sporting events, organising lost property, general enquiries, managing drunken behaviour
Name three modern challenges facing Britain?s police force
balancing quick response and community policing, the increasing complexity of some crimes, the international nature of crime and terrorism, recruitment of officers and budget cuts.
Name three changes to the prison system from the 1890s to the 1930s
the opening of Broadmoor Hospital, the crank and the treadwheel were abolished, solitary confinement was ended, uniforms were changed, diet was improved, heating and conditions in cells were improved, teachers were employed, rehabilitation through work before release began
What was the name of the person behind most of the changes to the prison system between 1922 and 1947
Name four factors that enabled Alexander Patterson to make changes to the prison system
crime and fear of crime were reducing, the prison population was reducing, 80% of offenders were on short sentences, criminals were seen as ordinary, people who could be reformed through better treatment and education and the threat of arrest was a greater deterrent than imprisonment.
Name three issues concerning women and the prison system in the 20th century
dramatic rise in numbers, self-harm issues; crimes were often linked to poverty, drug dependency and mental health problems
Give four arguments against capital punishment that would have been used in the 20th century
?the legal system makes mistakes?; ?the wrong person can be hanged?; ?it places a permanent and undeserved stigma on the family of the executed?; ?execution isn?t a deterrent?; ?it?s barbaric?; ?prisons have improved?; ?civilised society doesn?t need it?.