Module 1 - Topic 3-4: Types Of Tissues And Basic Anatomical Terminology Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 1 - Topic 3-4: Types Of Tissues And Basic Anatomical Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 1 - Topic 3-4: Types Of Tissues And Basic Anatomical Terminology Deck (84):
1

Epithelial tissue

Covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and form glands

2

Epithelial tissue function

A barrier
Absorption
Secretion

3

Connective tissue

Protects and supports the body
Bonds organs together
Stores energy reserves
Provides immunity

4

Connective tissue function

Organise and maintain body structure
Transport gases
Defence

5

Muscle tissue

Generates physical force for movement

6

Muscle tissue - functions

Movement

7

Nervous tissue

Detects changes in conditions
Responds by initiating and transmitting nerve impulses

8

Nervous tissue - functions

Sensory and motor impulse conduction
Interpretation of external and internal environment
Controls and coordinates body activities

9

Tissue development

From 3 primary gem layers

10

Primary germ layers

Ectoderm
Endoderm
Mesoderm

11

Simple epithelium

Single layer of cells

12

Stratified epithelium

Two or more layers of cells

13

Pseudostratified epithelium

Single layer that appears stratified

14

Squamous cells

Flattened

15

Cuboidal cells

Cube shaped or hexagons

16

Columnar cells

Tall and cylinders

17

Transitional cells

Able to undergo changes in shape cause by distension

18

Simple squamous epithelium

Located in areas of little wear and tear and adapted for diffusion and filtration, eg, inner lining of heart chambers

19

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Adapted for secretion and absorption eg, kidney tubules and small ducts

20

Simple columnar epithelium

Some areas have cilia to move material past cells (upper respiratory passages)
Some have microvilli to increase surface area and efficiency of absorption (small intestine)

21

Stratified squamous epithelium

Provides protection to areas of much wear and tear eg, outer layer of skin

22

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Provides protection eg, ducts of sweat glands

23

Stratified columnar epithelium

Functions in protection and secretion eg large ducts of some glands

24

Transitional epithelium

Contains cells that undergo changes in shape and locate sin areas of stretching eg, urinary bladder

25

Pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

Functions in secretion or movement of materials by ciliary action eg, Fallopian tubes

26

Glandular epithelium

Specialised cells organised to form glands that secrete substances either into ducts, onto surfaces or directly into blood

27

Anatomical position

A standard position that ensures directional terms are clear

28

Anatomical position - position

Body is erect
Feet flat on floor
Upper limbs at side
Palms facing forward

29

Prone position

Body is lying face down

30

Supine position

Body is lying face up

31

Semi prone position

Body is lying on it's side

32

Regional names

Terms given to specific regions of body

33

Regional names - types

Head - cephalic
Neck - cervical
Trunk - shoulders to gentials, except limbs
Upper limbs - shoulders to gentials (arms)
Lower limbs - gentials to heel

34

Body planes

Imaginary flat surface that passes through the body

35

Body section

Flat surface of the body studied after the body has been cut along the specific plane

36

Directional terms

Used to accurately locate one body structure relative to another body structure

37

Superior

Top halve of body

38

Inferior

Lower half of body

39

Lateral

Left or right side of body

40

Medial

Middle of body

41

Proximal

Top of arm

42

Distal

Bottom of arm

43

Anterior

Front of body

44

Posterior

Back of body

45

Mani body cavities

Dorsal and ventral

46

Dorsal cavity

Towards the back
- holds cranial and vertebral cavity

47

Cranial cavity

Contains brain and coverings

48

Vertebral cavity

Contains spinal cord and spinal nerve roots

49

Ventral cavity

Towards the front (belly) side
Holds thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic

50

Thoracic cavity

Separated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm
Subdivided into right and left pleural cavities, pericardial cavity and mediastinum

51

Abdominopelvic cavity

Subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities

52

Visceral layer

Covering organs

53

Parietal layer

Lining walls of cavities

54

Abdominopelvic cavity - division

Into 9 regions

55

Radiography

Use of X-rays
Used for dense structures like bones
Dense structures are white

56

Ct scan

Refined version of radiography
Slices through the body to give thin slices
More refined details of soft and dense tissue

57

MRI scans

Used to view soft tissues
Depends on water content
Dense tissue- low water content - are not detected

58

Sonography

Ultrasounds
High frequency waves used to examine internal organs
Causes echoes

59

Positron emission tomography

Observes metabolic processes
Given injection that shows up in scanner

60

sagital plane

straight down middle of body (left and right)

61

parasagital plane

to the left or right of sagitial plane

62

coronal plane

straight through middle of body (front and back)

63

transverse plane

divides body top and bottom

64

Appendicular

everything off the trunk of the body (legs,arms)

65

axial

the trunk of the body

66

cephalic

head

67

Cervical

neck

68

Mental

chin

69

Oral

mouth

70

otic

ear

71

orbital

around eye

72

Axillary

armpit

73

Sternal

Breastbone

74

Brachial

upper arm

75

Acromial

Shoulder

76

Trunk

chest

77

Umbilical

navel

78

Lumbar

lower back

79

Inguinal

groin

80

Gluteal

buttock

81

Femoral

thigh

82

popliteal

back of knee

83

Patellar

knee cap

84

Crucal

lower leg