Module 102 - Lecture 1.2 Structure and function of the thoracic wall Flashcards Preview

Year 1 - Module 102 > Module 102 - Lecture 1.2 Structure and function of the thoracic wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 102 - Lecture 1.2 Structure and function of the thoracic wall Deck (39):
1

What is the function of the skeleton?

- Protects vital organs
- Movement
- Supports the body
- Storage of minerals
- Source of RBC

2

Describe the structural divisions of the skeleton?

- Axial: Skull, vertebrae, ribs
- Appendicular: limbs

3

Components of the thoracic cage

- Vertebrae and intervertebral disc
- Ribs
- Sternum
- Costal cartilages

4

Function of the thoracic cage

- Protection of viscera
- Muscle movement

5

Roof boundary of the thoracic cage

Pleural membrane over apex of lungs

6

Floor boundary of the thoracic cage

Diaphragm

7

Wall boundaries of the thoracic cage

Ribs, sternum, vertebrae and intercostal muscles

8

Which ribs are typical ribs?

Ribs 3-9

9

Which ribs are atypical?

1,2,10th-12th

10

Features of a typical rib

- Head with two facets
- Neck
- Tubercle
- Body(shaft) with costal(subcostal) groove

11

Atypical features of rib 1

- Shorter and wider than other ribs
- Only has one facet on its head for articulation with its corresponding vertebrae
- The superior surface is marked by two grooves, which make way for the subclavian vessels

12

Atypical features of rib 2

- Thinner and longer than rib 1, and has two articular facets on the head as normal
- It has a roughened area on its upper surface, where the serratus anterior muscle attaches

13

Atypical feature of rib 10

- Only has one facet - for articulation with its numerically corresponding vertebrae

14

Atypical features of ribs 11 and 12

- Have no neck
- Only contain one facet, which is for articulation with their corresponding vertebrae

15

Features of typical thoracic vertebrae

- Heart shaped body with demi facets
- Costal facets on transverse
- Inferior pointing spinous processes

16

Joints of the thoracic wall

- Intervertebral
- Costovertebral
- Costochondral
- Sternocostal
- Sternoclavicular

17

Costovertebral joint

- Head of rib articulates with costal(demifacet) on two adjacent vertebrae and the associated intervertebral disc
- Exceptions 1st, 11th and 12th which only articulate with one vertebrae

18

Costotransverse joint

- Tubercle of rib articulates with transverse process of vertebrae

19

What is the superior thoracic aperture formed from?

- Body of T1
- 1st rib
- Manubrium

20

What is the inferior thoracic aperture formed from?

- Body of T12
- Rib 11 and 12
- Costal cartilage of rib 7-12
- Xiphoid process

21

Describe differences of thoracic cage in babies?

- Horizontal ribs
- More circular cavity
- Prevents lateral expansion of chest cage in breathing
- Xiphoid process may protrude

22

Origin of pectoralis major

- Clavicle and sternum

23

Insertion of pectoralis major

- Humerus

24

Action of pectoralis major

- Adducts and medially rotates humerus

25

Innervation of pectoralis major

Lateral and medial pectoral nerves

26

Origin of pectoralis minor

3-5th rib

27

Insertion of pectoralis minor

coracoid process of scapula

28

Function of pectoralis minor

Stabilizers scapula

29

Innervation of pectoralis minor

Medial pectoral nerve

30

What are the layers of intercostal muscles

- External intercostals
- Internal intercostals
- Innermost intercostals

31

VAN for intercostal muscles

- Supplied by intercostal artery, vein and nerve which runs in subcostal groove

32

Origin of serratus anterior

- 1-8th rib

33

Insertion of serratus anterior

- Medial border of scapula

34

Function of serratus anterior

- Protracts scapula

35

Innervation of serratus anterior

- Long thoracic nerve

36

Arterial supply of thoracic cage

Blood supply to the thoracic wall derived from:

- Thoracic aorta-posterior intercostal arteries
- Subclavian artery-anterior intercostal arteries

37

Describe the breast

- Mammary glands located superficial to pectoralis major
- Consist of glands that drain into 15-20 ducts which open onto the nipple

38

Arterial supply of the breast

Axillary, internal thoracic artery and 2nd-4th intercostal arteries

39

Lymph drainage of the breast

- 75% axillary nodes
- 25% parasternal nodes