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Flashcards in Module 16 Deck (71):
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This group emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes

Gestalt psychologists

1

Necker cube is an example of organizing images into a

Gestalt which shows that a whole May exceed parts

2

To perceive any object as distinct from its surroundings

Figure ground
Ex.hearing voices at a party but tuning into one
Voices = ground
Single voice = figure

3

When the figure stands out from the ground

Contour

4

When the figure becomes the ground, and ground becomes figure

Reversible figures

5

— includes proximity,similarity, and closure

Grouping

6

Objects grouped together are seen as whole is

Closure

7

Objects near each other are grouped together is

Proximity

8

Perceiving continuous patters rather than discontinuous patterns is

Continuity

9

— is influence of nearby stimuli

Contrast

10

3D includes

Depth, height, width

11

Linear perspective,interposition(overlapping) ,relative height and relative size are parts of

Monocular cues

12

When objects are far away — retinal disparity occurs, but when objects are close— retinal disparity occurs.

Less,more

13

Retinal images can ( blank), but we will still perceive the image as ( blank).

Change,the same

14

Location for a figure is— ,but for the ground location is

In front of ground, behind the figure

15

— are misperception or inaccurate models are called

Illusions

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When we believe that the figures our moving but in reality are being turned on and off precisely this is called the

Phi phenomenon

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When the ground is moving and the figure is stationary. This is called

Induced motion

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We feel as the the figure is moving but according to induced motion the

Ground is moving and figure is stationary

19

A string of lights flashing is an example of the

Phi phenomenon

20

Charlie chaplain mask that is concave appears to be moving as we move. It looks as though it stares at us.this is an

Illusion of motion ( phi phenomenon )
Also in haunted mansion the uses these masks

21

When we look at an image and perceive there are 3 blocks and then four.our mind cannot make up what's true.this is called an

Impossible figures

22

Ponzu (deals with two lines) and muller-lyer ( sees lines as bigger or smaller) both illustrate that size different relationships can be

Misleading depth and size because in reality the two lines are equal in size but because of linear perspective and realitive height cause the to look different sizes

23

Phantom words are an example of

Audio illusion

24

When a part of speech is repeated it

Forms a song in our heads

25

A figure's shape is ( ) and is meaningful. A ground' shape is ( ) and is ( ).

Defined,undefined,meaningless

26

A laboratory device used for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

Visual cliff

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A visual binocular cue used in detecting depth is

Retinal disparity

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Depth cues available to each eye separately are

Monocular cues

29

Perceptual constancy is a

Top down processing

30

If we assume two objects are similar in size. We perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as

Farther away

31

If a one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer because of

Interposition

32

Perceiving objects as up changing even as illumination and retinal images change

Perceptual constancy

33

Our experience of color depends on an object's

Context

So does brightness constancy

34

The perception of consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object is called

Color constancy

35

We can see color because of our brain's computations of light reflected by an object relative to the object's

Surrounding it

36

The amount f light an object reflects relative to its surroundings is

Relative luminance

37

Comparisons govern our

Perceptions

38

Thanks to our visual cortex neurons that rapidly learn to associate different views of an object we see the same object as we did before. For example we see a door no matter if it's open or closed. This is called

Shape constancy

39

Our brain constructs our

Perceptions

40

German philosopher Immanuel Kant said that maintained knowledge comes from our ( ) of organizing sensory experiences

Inborn ways- nature

41

John Locke thought that our experiences teach us to

Learn how to perceive the world- nurture

42

Nurture sculpts what

Nature has endowed

43

In vision the ability to adjust to artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called

Perceptual adaptation

44

Our tendencies to fill in gaps and to perceive a pattern as continuous are two different examples of

Grouping

45

In listening to a concert you attend to a solo instrument and perceive the orchestra as an accompaniment, this is an example of

Figure ground

46

The visual cliff experiments suggest

Crawling infants and very young animals can perceive depth

47

Depth perception underlies our ability to

Judge distances

48

Interposition and linear perspective are to examples of

Monocular depth cues

49

Perceiving a tomato as consistently red, despite lighting shifts is an example of

Perceptual constancy

50

After surgery to restore vision, patients who had been blind from birth had difficulty

Recognizing objects by sight

51

In experiments people have worn glasses that turned their visual fields upside down. After a period of adjustment they learned to function quite well. This is called

Perceptual adaptation

52

The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called

Closure

53

The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called

Perceptual adaptation

54

Retinal disparity refers to

Somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object

55

Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina we typically perceive the books the books as rectangular objects.this best illustrates the importance of

Shape constancy

56

Figure is to ground as

A white cloud is to a blue sky, or cloud to sky

57

The term gestalt means

Whole

58

Indicators of distance such as linear perspective which are available to either eye or alone are called

Monocular cues

59

Perceiving objects a sun unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change is known as

Perceptual constancy

60

Railroad track appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue of depth perception known as

Linear perspective

61

Although a few keys on the piano were broken, shana mentally filled in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This illustrates

Closure

62

The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is

Interposition

63

After some practice, carol was able to read books while holding them upside down. This shows

Perceptual adaptation

64

In the muller lyer illusion the arrowheads at the ends of the lines lead people to misjudge the - of the two horizontal lines

Length

65

The organizational rules identified by gestalt psychologists illustrates that

The perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts

66

When the moon is near the horizon it appears larger than when it's high in the sky. This effect is a result of

Distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away

67

The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into Separate words best illustrates the principle of

Proximity

68

The fact that we recognize objects having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates

Perceptual constancy

69

If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived to be

More distant

70

When we stare at an object,each eye receives a slightly different image providing a depth cue known as

Retinal disparity