Module 2 - Topic 3-4: Joints and Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 2 - Topic 3-4: Joints and Muscles Deck (78):
1

Joints

hold bones together
facilitates movement

2

Ligament

bone to bone

3

Tendon

bone to muscle

4

Joint tissue - types

fibrous connective tissue
cartilage
mixture of both with synovial fluid

5

fibrous connective tissue

strength and support

6

Cartilage

cushioning, strength and flexibility

7

Mixture and synovial fluid

cushioning and lubrication

8

Joint Classification - composition

fibrous joints
cartilage joints
synovial joints

9

Fibrous Joints

no cavity
collagen fibres extend from matrix of one bone to another
eg. suture - held together by short fibres and interlocked bone edges

10

Cartilage Joints

no cavity
bones held together by cartilage
symphyses and synchondroses

11

symphyses

made of cartilage

12

synchondroses

bones united by hyaline cartilage

13

Synovial Joints

distinct cavity filled with fluid
bones seperated by cavity
eneclosed in double layered fibrous capsule
reinforced by ligaments

14

Articular cartilgae

outer fibrous layer, inner synovial membrane

15

bursae

small fluid sacs
where friction would occur
aids in gliding of tendons and muscles over bones

16

Core molecule in synovial fluid

hyaluronic acid, sugar that attracts water

17

Joint Classfication - Mobility

Synarthroses
Amphiarthroses
Diarthroses

18

Synarthroses

close together, no movement in joint

19

Amphiarthroses

little to some movement

20

Diarthroses

freel moveable, far apart

21

Ball and socket joint

allows movement in all direction

22

Hinge joint

allows joint to bend and straighten, does not rotate

23

saddle joints

fit together to allow all movement but rotation

24

gliding joints

two surfaces glide past each other

25

Gliding movement

bone glides over the other (ankle, wrist)

26

Angular Movement

when it changes angles between bones

27

Flexion

angle of joint has decreased

28

Extension

angle of joint has increased

29

Abduction

taken away from body

30

Adduction

towards body

31

Circumduction

going around

32

Rotational movement

movement of bone round own axis`

33

Supination

turning outwards

34

Pronation

turning inwards

35

Synovial Joints - 5 main parts

articular cartilage
a synovial cavity
synovial fluid
articular capsule
re inforcing ligaments

36

Hyaline cartilage in synovial cavity

acts as sponge
fluid is removed when joint is under pressure, placed back in when pressure is removed

37

main types of muscle tissue

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

38

muscle fibres

ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy

39

myoblasts

make up mature muscle cells

40

skeletal muscles

primarily attached to tendons

41

skeletal muscle fibres

straited appearance
contraction is voluntary
long, cylindrial and multi nucleated

42

Cardiac muscle fibres

striated appearance
involuntary
branching chains, one or 2 nuclei
intercalated discs

43

intercalated disc

intercellular junction
uniform contraction of the heart

44

Smooth muscle fibres

in the walls of tubular organs
not striated
involuntary contraction
uninuclear
unbranched and spindle shaped

45

skeletal muscle - organ level

made up of fascicles, individually wrapped and bound by connective tissue

46

fascicle

bundle of muscle fibres

47

tendons

similar to ligaments but connect bone to muscle

48

muscle fibres - make up

fusion of hundreds of myoblasts
multinucleated

49

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibre

50

t tubules

extensions from sarcolemma, penetrate deep in cell

51

Sacrcoplasmic reticulum

a store of calcium ions which regulate the contraction of each fibre

52

Myofibrils

extend from one end to the other
are the contractile components

53

myofibril composition

thick filaments - myosin
thin filaments - actin

54

sarcomeres

thick and thin filaments overlapping

55

how muscles contract

thick and thin filaments slide past each other

56

muscle sliding process

actin and myosin bind to each other
myosin molecule bends dragging actin
energy from ATP

57

Tropomyosin

blocks the myosin binding on thin filaments

58

muscle stimulated to contract by nerve impulses

calcium are released
calcium binds to troponin and it changes shape
as shape change, it drags tropomyosin away
actin is now free to bind to myosin

59

smooth muscle

regulation of blood pressure
cells are spindle shaped and form sheets that run longitudinally

60

Peristalsis

rhythmical waves of compression that moves food through digestive system

61

smooth muscle makeup

myosin and actin filaments
intermediate filament outer netting
limited sarcoplasmic reticulum
caveoli (little cavities)

62

regulating contractions - smooth muscle

calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase provide calcium dependent mechaism

63

smooth muscle contraction

calcium is released from SR
bind to and activates calmodulin which actives MLC kinase
MLC kinase transfers phosphate from ATP to myosin cross bridges
myosin bridges interact with actin

64

muscle relaxtion

returns after calcium ions are reabsorbed by the SR

65

Muscular System functions

movement
control of body openings and communication
stability of posture
stabilisation of joints
heat production

66

Muscular System properties

excitability
conductivity
contractability
extensibility
elasticity

67

Perimysium

protective sheath around fascicle

68

endomysium

between individual cells

69

Sarcolemma

plasma membrane

70

Epimysium

whole muscle wrapping

71

Muscle Growth

fusion of myoblasts into large cells

72

t tubules

extensions of cell membrane into cell, allows muscles to receive signals at same time

73

Regulatory proteins

switch on or off contractions - troponin and tropomyosin

74

structural proteins

provides correct alignment, elasticity and extensibility (titin and dystrophin)

75

what helps anchor the filaments together

m line
z disc
titin

76

Myosin molecules

made of actin and ATP binding sites

77

Thin filaments

actin with sites for myosin attachment heads, hoever sites are blocked by tropomyosin ribbons

78

what happens when thick filaments pull the thin filaments

reduces other zones