Module 3 - Independent Study Nutrition (Exam 2) 1 Flashcards Preview

Semester Three - Half Two - Nursing 212 > Module 3 - Independent Study Nutrition (Exam 2) 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 3 - Independent Study Nutrition (Exam 2) 1 Deck (51):
1

Influences on nutrition

  1. Age
  2. Baseline knowledge
  3. Culteral background
  4. Dietaryand exercise habits

2

Why is strong pre-conception nutrition good?

  1. Supports maternal wellness
  2. Supports growth and deelopment of healthy placenta

3

Possible exisiting nutritional compromise issues

Food Restrictions:

  1. Eating Disorders
  2. Personal Choice
  3. Knowledge deficits
  4. Financial Constraints

Others:

  1. Adolescent Age
  2. Multiple Gestation
  3. Closely-Spaced Pregnancies
  4. Body Mass Index <18.5 or >24.9

4

Optimal Weight Gain Pregnancy

25-35 lbs

For normal pre-pregnancy BMI

5

1st trimester Weight Gain

~1-4.5lbs

6

2nd and 3rd Trimesters

~1 pound/week

7

What does inadequate weight gain correlate with?

  1. Low birth weights
    1. Less than or equal to 5.5 lbs or 2500 G. Birth weight is a major predictor of future health
  2. Pre-Term Labor
    1. Neonatal compromise

8

What does excessive weight gain correlate with?

  1. Gestational Diabetes
  2. Macrosomia
    1. Dysfunctional labor/Cesarean birth

9

Weight Gain at Term Break Down

  • Fat Stores ~7
  • Blood Volume ~4
  • Fluid Volume ~4
  • Breasts ~3
  • Uterus ~2.5
  • Placenta ~1
  • Amniotic Fluid ~2
  • Baby ~7.5
  • TOTAL = 31 lbs

10

Calorie requirements non-pregnant women 15-50 years of age

1,800-2,400/day

11

Calorie Requirements pregnant women 15-50 years of age

2,200-2,900/day

12

Caloric increase during the 1st trimester

No caloric increase

13

Caloric increase during the 2nd trimester

~340/day additional calories

14

Caloric increase during the 3rd trimester

~452 calories/day additional calories

15

Macronutrients

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Protein
  3. Fats

16

Carbohydrates

Primary energy source

17

Protein

Tissue growth and repair

18

Fats

Energy source

19

Micronutrients

  1. Vitamins
  2. Minerals

20

Simple Carbohydrates

  • Provide energy but few nutients
    • Table Sugar (sucrose), candy, soda pop

21

Complex Carbohydrates

  1. Provide energy and nutrients
    1. Grains, rice, pasta, beans
  2. Fiber
    1. Slows gastric emptying
    2. Stimulates peristalsis

22

Non-Pregnant RDA Carbohydrates

130 G/Day

23

Pregnant RDA Carbohydrates

175 G/Day

24

How much should carbohydrates increase during pregnancy?

45 G

25

Protein Sources

  1. Animal Sources - Meats, fish, eggs, dairy
  2. Plant Sources - Legumes, nuts, seeds, grains

26

Non-Pregnant RDA Protein

46 G/Day

27

Pregnant RDA Protein

71 G/Day

28

How much should protein increase during pregnancy?

25 G

29

Protein Facts

  1. Source of amino acids
  2. Amino acids are nutrient substrates (building blocks of protein)
  3. Supports tissue growth and repair

30

Fats Facts

  1. Energy source
  2. Essential fatty acids
    1. Assist in fetal CNS development
      1. Omega-3 polyunsaturates
        1. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

31

Fat Soluable Vitamins

A, D, E, K

32

Vitamin A

  1. Fat Soluable Vitamin
  2. Vision support/infection resistance
  3. Dark green, dark orange vegetables, eggs

33

Vitamin D

  1. Fat Soluable Vitamin
  2. Bone mineralization/skeletal structure
  3. Sunlight, fish/fish oils, fortified dairy products

34

Vitamin E

  1. Fat Soluable Vitamin
  2. Protects cells from oxidative stress
  3. Whole grains, vegetable oils, peanut butter

35

Vitamin K

  1. Fat Soluable Vitamin
  2. Coagulation - Exogenous vitamin K provided to neonates
  3. Green leafy vegetables

36

Water-Soluable Vitamins

B, C

37

Vitamin B

  1. B Complex Vitamins
    1. Co-enzyme factors in cellular function
    2. Folate/folic acid

38

Folate/Folic Acid

Vitamin B

Strong clinical evidence correlates inadequate levels of folate with higher incidence of neural tube defects

39

RDA Vitamin B (Folic acid) Childbearing-aged Women

400 mcg

40

RDA Vitamin B (Folic acid) Pregnancy

600 mcg

41

How much should Vitamin B (folic acid) increase during pregnancy?

200 mcg

42

Vitamin C

  1. Water-Soluable Vitamin
  2. Connective tissue/vascularity
  3. Beans, enriched grains
  4. Green leafy vegetables
  5. Oranges, strawberries, broccoli

43

Calcium

  1. Mineral
  2. Bone formation
  3. Cell membrane function
  4. Maternal calcium stores readily transfer to the fetus
  5. Dairy products, legumes, nuts, dried fruits, green leafy vegetables

44

Sodium

Limit high sodium foods

45

Iron

  1. Low maternal iron stores/ physiological anemia
  2. Supplementation 30 mg qd beginning in the 2nd trimester
  3. Iron supplements best takens with H20 or orange juice

46

Iron-deficiency anemia

 

  1. May correlate with preterm birth and maternal morbidity
  2. Mother's physiology favors fetal growth
    1. Iron will transfer to the fetus, even when maternal stores are low
    2. Neonate draws on stored iron throughout the first 4-6 months of life

47

Iron Sources

HEME Iron

  • Animal Sources
  • Best absorbed
  • Meat, fish, poultry, eggs

Non-HEME Iron

  • Plant Sources
  • Dried fruits, enriched grains, molasses, green leafy vegetables

48

Optimal nutrition source

wholesome foods

49

Women with adequate diets can readily meet nutritional needs EXCEPT

  • Iron and Folate
  • Vegetarian diets, dairy-free

50

Vegetarianism

  • Variety of complementary plant proteins
  • Legumes, rice, peanut butter, whole grains
  • Soy products are complete proteins

51

PICA

Ingestion of non-nutrient substances

  1. Ice
  2. Clay
  3. Laundry starch or cornstarch
  4. Major concern is anemia (decreased Iron absorption)