Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Flashcards Preview

A.P. Psychology > Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Deck (31):
1

scientific method

self-correcting process for evaluating ideas with observations and analysis

2

theory

explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed

3

hypothesis

testable predictions

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why can hypotheses be bad?

cause bias observations, we see what we expect

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operational definition

carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in research study to avoid biases

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replicate

to repeat essence of a research study to see if basic findings extends to different participants/circumstances

7

theory is useful if

1. organizes a range of self-reports and observations
2. implies predictions that anyone can use to check theory or derive practical applications
3. stimulate further research that leads to revision of theory

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descriptive methods

describe behavior

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correlational methods

associates different factors

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experimental methods

manipulates factors to discover effects

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case study

examines one individual or group in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

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negative of case study

can be misleading due to unrepresentative info

13

naturalistic observations

describes (does not explain) behavior in natural environments

14

survey

descriptive technique for obtaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

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random sample

every person in the group has equal chance of participating

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correlate

measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and how well either predicts the other

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correlation coefficient

statistical index of relationship between two things

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scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents values of two variables

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illusory correlation

when we believe that two things have a relationship but they do not

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regression toward the mean

tendency for extreme scores to fall back toward average

21

decline effect

ESP subjects lose psychic powers after successful first test result but before second test taken

22

experiment

research method in which researcher manipulates one or more factors to observe effect on behavior/mental process

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experimental group

people receive treatment

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control group

people do not receive treatment

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random assignment

way of assigning people to groups to control other relevant factors

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double-blind procedure

neither the participant nor administrator knows who is receiving drug or placebo

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placebo effect

experimental results caused by only thinking

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independent variable

factor that is manipulated

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confounding variables

factors other than IV which might produce an effect

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dependent variable

factor that is measured

31

informed consent

giving enough info to participant of a study to allow them to decide if they want to participate or not