Flashcards in Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Deck (31):

1

## scientific method

### self-correcting process for evaluating ideas with observations and analysis

2

## theory

### explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed

3

## hypothesis

### testable predictions

4

## why can hypotheses be bad?

### cause bias observations, we see what we expect

5

## operational definition

### carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in research study to avoid biases

6

## replicate

### to repeat essence of a research study to see if basic findings extends to different participants/circumstances

7

## theory is useful if

###
1. organizes a range of self-reports and observations

2. implies predictions that anyone can use to check theory or derive practical applications

3. stimulate further research that leads to revision of theory

8

## descriptive methods

### describe behavior

9

## correlational methods

### associates different factors

10

## experimental methods

### manipulates factors to discover effects

11

## case study

### examines one individual or group in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

12

## negative of case study

### can be misleading due to unrepresentative info

13

## naturalistic observations

### describes (does not explain) behavior in natural environments

14

## survey

### descriptive technique for obtaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

15

## random sample

### every person in the group has equal chance of participating

16

## correlate

### measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and how well either predicts the other

17

## correlation coefficient

### statistical index of relationship between two things

18

## scatterplot

### graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents values of two variables

19

## illusory correlation

### when we believe that two things have a relationship but they do not

20

## regression toward the mean

### tendency for extreme scores to fall back toward average

21

## decline effect

### ESP subjects lose psychic powers after successful first test result but before second test taken

22

## experiment

### research method in which researcher manipulates one or more factors to observe effect on behavior/mental process

23

## experimental group

### people receive treatment

24

## control group

### people do not receive treatment

25

## random assignment

### way of assigning people to groups to control other relevant factors

26

## double-blind procedure

### neither the participant nor administrator knows who is receiving drug or placebo

27

## placebo effect

### experimental results caused by only thinking

28

## independent variable

### factor that is manipulated

29

## confounding variables

### factors other than IV which might produce an effect

30

## dependent variable

### factor that is measured

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