Module 3- topic 3-4: Peripheral Nervous System and Hormones Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 3- topic 3-4: Peripheral Nervous System and Hormones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 3- topic 3-4: Peripheral Nervous System and Hormones Deck (66):
1

Sensory receptors

Monitor changes in and out of human body
Transmits information back to CNS

2

Mechanoreceptors

Detect mechanical stimuli

3

Thermoreceptors

Detect temperature changes

4

Photoreceptors

Respond to light

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Chemoreceptors

Respond to chemicals

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Nocireceptors

Detect harmful stimuli and elicit pain response

7

Receptor potential

Produced by stimuli and I turn causes action potential to travel along afferent fibres

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Peripheral nerve fibres

Bundled together to produce peripheral nerve

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Endoneurium

Immediately surrounds each nerve fibre

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Perineurium

Collects nerve fibres in small bundles called fascicles

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Fascicles

Bundles of nerve fibres wrapped in perineurium

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epineurium

Collects fascicles with blood vessels to produce peripheral nerve

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Spinal reflex

Somatic nerves involved in involuntary automated response

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Autonomic nervous system

Maintains homeostasis because sympathetic and parasympathetic send opposing efferent signals to target organs

15

Impulse pathway of autonomic nervous system

A chain of 2 neutrons plus a junction site

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Gangalion

Junction site

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Pre ganglionic nerve body

Within CNS

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Post ganglionic nerve body

Within a ganglion within pns

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Sympathetic ganglia

Close to spinal cord

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Parasympathetic ganglia

Within effector organs

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Efferent signals in ANS motor neurons

Travel far slower than somatic motor neurons
Effect lasts much longer

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Parasympathetic pathway

Releases acetylcholine at both ganglionic and effector synapse

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Sympathetic pathway

Releases acetylcholine at ganglionic synapse but releases norepinephrine at effector synapse

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Endocrine system

Control and integration of organ systems
Produces and secretes hormones

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Hormones

Bond to target tissue and change their metabolism

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Endocrine glands

Do not have secretory ducts, release products directly into blood stream

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Effects of endocrine system

Much slower than nervous system but are maintained for longer periods of time

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Pituitary gland - location

Located at base of brain

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Pituitary gland - makeup

Posterior pituary
Anterior pituitary

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Posterior pituitary

Extension of hypothalamus
Stores hormones produced by hypothalamus

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Anterior pituitary

Derived from epithelial cells
Hormone secreting glandular tissue

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How hypothalamus regulates release of hormones

Interconnecting network of blood vessels

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Posterior pituitary- hormones

Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone

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Oxytocin

Stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection

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Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water from urine and return to bloodstream

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Anterior pituitary- hormones

Human growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Prolactin
Follicle stimulating hormone
Luteinizing hormone

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Human growth hormone (hGH)

Promotes growth

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Increased levels of hGH

Gigantism

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Decreased levels of hGH

Dwarfism

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Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Stimulates hormone production by thyroid gland

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates hormone production from adrenal glands

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Prolactin

Promotes milk production

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Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Regulate male and female reproductive systems

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Thyroid gland - location

Front of neck near Adam's apple

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Thyroid gland - makeup

Composed of numerous follicles lines by single layer of epithelial cells

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormone
Calcitonin

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Thyroid hormone

Effects metabolism

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Calcitonin

Produced by parafollicular cells
Lowers calcium levels
Promotes bone formation by inhibiting osteoclasts

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Parathyroid glands - location

4 pea shaped glands at rear of thyroid gland

50

Parathyroid hormone

Maintains calcium homeostasis

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Ways that PTH increases calcium

Activates reabsorption of bone matrix
Increases calcium absorption of small intestine
Increases calcium reabsorption of kidney

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Too much pth

Cause oestoclasts to break down large areas of bone to make cysts

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Too little pth

Decreases levels of calcium in blood

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Adrenal gland - location

Small Pyramid shaped organs at top each kidney

55

Hormones in adrenal glands

Aldosterone
Cortisol
Sex hormones

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Aldosterone

Increases blood pressure by increasing Na+ reabsorption
Formed in zona glomerulosa

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Cortisol

Increases metabolism
Decreases inflammatory and immune response

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Sex hormones

Onset of puberty

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Adrenal medulla

Contains chromatin cells

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chromatin cells

Secrete catecholamines
- epinephrine
- norepinephrine

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Catecholamine function

Increase:
heart rate
Blood pressure
Metabolism
Oxygen uptake

62

proprioceptors

detect muscle contraction and joint movement

63

auditory receptors

in ear

64

otoliths

stones in ear
detects and maintains balance
movement tells brain where head it

65

olfactory receptors

in the nose

66

Gustatory receptors

taste buds