Module 3: Waves and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 3: Waves and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Deck (52):
1

Define Amplitude

the maximum displacement on either side of the euqilibriium (midpoint) position

2

Define Frequency

the number of vibrations per unit time;  for a wave the number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time

3

Define Period

time required for a vibration or a wave to make a complete cycle;  equal to 1/frequency

4

Define Wavelength

the distance between successive crests, throughs, or identical parts of a wave

5

Define Longitudinal Waves

a wave in which the medium bibrates ina direction parallel (longitudinal) to the direction in which the wave travels;  light consists of transverse waves

6

Define Transverse Waves

a wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction perpendicular (transverse) to the direction in which the wave travels;  light consists of tranverse waves

7

Define Reflection

the returning of a wave to the medium from which it came when it hits a barrier

8

Define Refraction

the path of a wave bends due to moving from one medium to another

9

Define Diffraction

spreading of wave when passing through a hole

10

Define Interference

the interaction of two or more waves with each other

11

Defne Doppler Effect

the change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source (or due to the motion of the receiver)

12

Define Sound

created when air molecules are vibrated back and forth by a vibration

13

Define Pitch

the quality of sound governed by the rate of vibrations producing it;  the degree of highness or lowness of a tune

  • low frequency = low pitch
  • high frequency = high pitch

14

Define Volume

corresponds to the amplitude of the sound wave

  • larger amplitude = louder sound
  • smaller amplitude = softer sound

15

Describe what a wave is

an oscillation accompanied by a trasfer of energy that travels through a medium (space or mass);  wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, which displaces particles of the transmission medium

16

Explain the difference between a Transverse Wave and a Longitudinal Wave.  Give examples of each.

  • Transverse Wave
  1. motion occurs perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave;  think of a boat riding ocean waves
  2. examples:  light waves, an oscillation string, seismic s-waves
  • Longitudinal Wave
  1. motion occurs parallel to the direction of travel of the wave;  think of a slinky laying on the ground and you push one end towards the other
  2. examples:  sound waves, pressure waves, seismic p-waves (generated by explosions and earthquakes)
  • FYI - Think of a long line of people holding hands.  When one person jumps in the air still holding hands, this causes a chain reaction in making the next person jump up an so on and so on.  This is a transverse wave.  Now that same line, if the person bumps the person next to them, this will cause a chain reaction with people with bumping and bouncing off of one another.  This is longitudinal wave.

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17

Describe the below term associated with waves:

  • Wavelength

the distance between successive crests, troughs or identical parts of a wave

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18

Describe the below term associated with waves:

  • Frequency

the number of vibrations per unit time;  for a wave, the number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time

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19

Describe the below term associated with waves:

  • Amplitude

the maximum displacement on either side of the equilibrium (midpoint) position

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20

Define Reflection and give an example.

Definition:  occurs when a wave encounters a barrier;  involves bouncing waves off an opaque surface

Examples:  light bouncing off a mirror, voices bouncing off of a rock wall (also called echoes)

21

Define Refraction and give an example.

Definition:  a wave moving from one medium to another, the wave bends at this point

Example:looking at a straw in a clear glass of water, earthquakes

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22

Define Interference.  Explain how constructive and destructive interfernce differ.

Definiton:  occurs when waves interact with each other

  1. Constructive 
  • amplidtude gets bigger
  • increase in sound
  • light would get brighter
  1. Destructive 
  • will cancel each other out
  • instead of light you would get dark
  • reduces noise
  • example is noise cancelling headphones

    

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23

Define the Doppler Effect and describe what happens to a wave due to it.

Definition:  the change in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source (or due to the motion of the receiver)

Example:  the sound a car makes when it drives past you really fast

  1. Sound Wavelength (Longitudinal Wave)
  • the wave length will have a higher frequency as it travels twoard the objet (or a higher pitch), when it travels past the object the wavelength will lengthen and you will have a lower frequency (or a lower pitch)

    2.   Light Wavelength (Transverse Wave)

  • the Doppler Radar station uses radar (a form of light) to track storms;  they bounce the radio waves off the storm clouds if they send the radio waves towards the on-coming storm, the wavelengths will be shorter, higher frequencies;  if they send the radio waves towards outgoing storm, the wavelengths will get longer, lower frequencies

24

A train travels toward you, emitting a horn at a frequency of 256 Hz.  Due to the Doppler Effect, the frequency of sound that you hear is acutally:

  1. higher than 256 Hz
  2. lower than 256 Hz
  3. equal to 256 Hz

  1. higher than 256 Hz

25

Explain what property of a sound wave changes when the pitch of the sound changes.

the frequency of the vibration of a sound wave will give you the pitch of sound;  when the pitch of a sound changes, the frequency changes

  • higher frequency = higher pitch
  • lower frequency = lower pitch

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26

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • What happens when the wavelength changes?

  1. Light:
  • increased wavelength = softer light
  • decreased wavelength = brighter light

    2.  Sound:

  • increased wavelength = softer sound and lower pitch
  • decreased wavelength = louder sound and higher pitch

27

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • What happens when the frequency changes?

  1. Light:
  • higher frequency = softer light
  • lower frequency = brighter light

    2.  Sound:

  • higher frequency = louder and high pitch sound
  • lower frequency = softer sound and lower pitch

28

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • What ahppens when the amplitude changes?

  1. LIght:
  • higher amplitude = brighter light
  • lower amplitude = softer light
  1. Sound:  (like the volume on a radio)
  • higher amplitude = louder sound
  • lower amplitude = softer sound

29

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Is it transverse or longitudinal?

 

  1. LIght:
  • transverse wave
  1. Sound:  
  • longitudinal wave

 

30

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Media they can travel through

  1. LIght:
  • requires no medium, can even move through a vacuum
  1. Sound:  
  • solids (ex: Steel Wall), liquids or gases, water but not very well, air

 

31

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Example of Reflection

  1. Light:
  • light bouncing off a mirror
  1. Sound:
  • voices bouncing off a stone wall (echoes)

32

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Example of Doppler Effect

  1. LIght:
  • Doppler Radar being used to track storms
  1. Sound:
  • car driving by you with the horn going

33

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Example of Interference

  1. Light:
  • Constructive - light would get brighter
  • Destructive - no light only dark or dimmer
  1. Sound:
  • Constructive - increase in sound
  • Destructive - reduces noise (noise cancelling headphones)

34

Describe the properties of light and sound for the statement/question below:

  • Example of Refraction

  1. Light:
  • putting a straw in a clear glass
  • light hitting a prism
  1. Sound:
  • being able to hear someone across a lake early in the moring, the air is cooler closer to the water, bending the sounds so they travel faster

35

Sound travels fastest in:

  1. air 
  2. water
  3. steel
  4. a vacuum (nothing at all)

3.  steel

36

True or False

Light requires a medium to move through.

False

37

Which of the following is NOT a transverse Wave?

  1. sound 
  2. light
  3. water
  4. "the wave" at the stadium

  1. sound

38

Define Electromagnetic Spectrum

the range of the electromagnetic waves that extends in frequency from radio waves to gamma waves

39

Define Electromagnetic Wave

an energy-carrying wave produced when an electric charge oscillates

40

Describe what an Electromagnetic Wave is

an energy-carrying wave produced when an electric charge oscillates; aka LIght; they are all transverse waves;  requires no medium to propagate through meaning it can move through the vacuum of space with no problems;  light is always moving fast

41

List the types of electromagnetic waves that are located on the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • Radio Waves (long wavelength, low energy, low frequency)
  • Microwaves
  • Infrared
  • Visible Light (light we see, middle of spectrum)
  • Ultraviolet Light
  • X-rays
  • Gamma Rays (short wavelength, high energy, high frequency)

42

Name the electromagnetic wave that correspond to the trick statements:

  1. Good Xylophones Use Very Interesting Musical Rhythm
  2. Real Men In Vegas Use X-ray Goggles

  1. Gamma Rays

X-Rays

Ultraviolet Lights

Visible Light

Infrared

Microwaves

Radio Waves

     2.  Radio Waves

Microwaves

Infrared

Visible Light

Ultraviolet Light

X-Rays

Gamma Rays

43

Explain how electromagnetic waves are similar and different.

  1. Similar:  they can all transfer energy
  2. Different:  depending where they fall on the spectrum depends on how much energy they can transfer

44

Describe common proactical applications for each of the different types of electromagnetic waves.

  1. Radio Waves - cell phones, RFID (tags you find in clothes)
  2. Microwaves - microwave oven, microwave telecommunication dish
  3. Infrared - searching for heating leaks in a power plant or house
  4. Ultraviolet - sterilization of food/equipment
  5. X-rays - imaging for medical/security applications
  6. Gamma Rays - cancer treatments

45

Which of the following is most unlike the others?

  1. Radio Waves 
  2. Gamma Rays 
  3. Visible Light 
  4. Sound Waves
  5. Microwaves

4.  Sound Waves

 

  1. Radio Waves    (light) 
  2. Gamma Rays    (light) 
  3. Visible Light     (light) 
  4. Sound Waves   (sound)
  5. Microwaves      (light)

46

Sound travles fastest in:

  1. air
  2. water
  3. steel
  4. a vacuum (nothing at all)

3.   steel

47

Which type of electromagnetic radiation possesses the most energy?

  1. Radio Waves
  2. Gamma Rays
  3. Visible Light
  4. Micorwaves
  5. X-rays

2.  Gamma Rays

48

Which type of electromagnetic radiation possesses the longest wavelength?

  1. Radio Waves
  2. Gamma Rays 
  3. Visible Light
  4. Micorwaves
  5. X-rays

  1. Radio Waves

49

Which type of electromagnetic radiation is utilized in night-vision glasses?

  1. Infrared Light
  2. Gamma Rays
  3. Visible Light
  4. Mocrowaves
  5. X-rays

  1. Infrared Light

50

Which type of electromagnetic radiation is utilized in transmitting cell phone calls?

  1. Infrared Light
  2. Gamma Rays
  3. Visible Light 
  4. Radio Waves
  5. X-rays

4.  Radio Waves

51

Which type of electromagnetic radiation is utilized in radiation therapy for cancer?

  1. Infrared Light
  2. Gamma Rays
  3. Visible Light
  4. Radio Waves
  5. X-rays

2.  Gamma Rays

52