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Flashcards in Module Deck (81):
1

You are assessing a non-pregnant female patient who informs you that she has been pregnant four times before but only delivered once. Which one of the following shows how you should document that information on the prehospital care report?

Gravida IV; Para 1

2

When treating a patient you believe to be suffering from an ectopic pregnancy, you know that the primary threat to the patient's life is:

Hemorrhaging

3

A young female is complaining of sharp pain to the left lower quadrant of her abdomen. She states that her last period was seven weeks ago. With this information, the EMT should be suspicous of:

Ectopic pregnancy

4

The EMT recognizes the underlying pathophysiology associated with an ectopic pregnancy as a fertilized egg that is:

Lodged in the fallopian tube

5

The EMT is performing CPR on a neonate. Which one of the following is the correct compression to ventilation ratio?

3 compressions to every 1 ventilation.

6

Which one of the following statements about a limb presentation is true?

A cesarean section birth will be required.`

7

The EMT shows that he understands the seriousness of a prolapsed cord when he states

"A prolapsed cord can stop the flow of oxygen to the baby."

8

which one of the following abnormal presentations is it permissible for the EMT to place a gloved hand into the vaginal canal?

Prolapsed umbilical cord

9

A 22 year old female, who is eight months pregnant, calls 911 for vaginal bleeding. Your assessment reveals no threats to the ABC's, but she does have some evidence of blood in her underwear. The patient denies pain. Her vital signs are normal. Given these findings, the EMT should be suspicious of:

Placenta previa

10

The EMT shows that he can accurately differentiate placenta previa from abrupto placenta when he states:

"Bleeding associated with abrupto placenta is typically associated with abdominal pain; bleeding associated with placentia previa is painless."

11

The EMT should recognize which one of the following babies as premature?

A baby weighing 7 pound 4 ounces born at 36 weeks.

12

You have been called to a home for a female patient in labor. On scene the family tells you that the 37 year old patient is 42 weeks pregnant and wanted to have her baby at home naturally. They tell you thta she has been in labor for over 24 hours and suddenly began complaining of severe and tearing abdominal pain. What condition should the EMT suspect?

Ruptured uterus

13

In a normal fertilization, the egg and sperm meet in which structure?

Fallopian tube

14

Which one of the following statements about the umbilical cord is true?

It contains one vein and two arteries

15

You are delivering a baby in the patient's house. As the baby's head appears at the vaginal opening, you notice that the amniotic membrane is still intact. Which one of the following should you do next?

Break open the amniotic sac with your fingers.

16

A 31 year old female in her third trimester of pregnancy lost her balance and fell down a flight of stairs. When treating her, the EMT should:

immobilize her, and then tilt the long spine board to the left.

17

Which one of the following patients should the EMT be most suspicious of having a spontaneous abortion?

21 year old, six weeks pregnant, passing vaginal blood clots.

18

You have been dispatched to a residence for a female patient who is dizzy and "passing out". An EMR meets you at the door and reports that the patient is lying supine in bed and is nine months pregnant. Her pulse rate is 112 and her blood pressure is 84/50 mmHg. Respirations are 24 per minute and she has a room air pulse oxymetry of 97%. Which one of the following should you do as soon as you reach the patient's side?

Roll her on her side

19

Which one of the following lists the stages of labor in the order in which they occur?

Dilation, expulsion, and placental.

20

Which one of the following statements made by a pregnant patient in labor should be of most concern to the EMT?

"My water broke two days ago"

21

Five minutes after delivering a baby, the mother states that she feels the suddern urge to push, just as a gush of blood comes from the vagina. Given that the mother is not delivering twins, what stage of labor should the EMT identify?

Placental

22

Which one of the following statements best indicates that the patient is in the second stage of labor?

"I feel like I have to move my bowels"

23

A patient is 7 cm dilated and complaining of painful contractions. What stage of labor should the EMT identify?

First stage

24

Assessment of a pregnant patient in labor reveals what appears to be the baby's buttocks presenting at the vaginal opening. Which one of the following should the EMT do immediately?

Place the mother in a supine, head-down position with hips elevated and admiister high-flow oxygen.

25

You have been called to a home for a female patient in labor. On scene the family tells you that the 37 year old patient is 42 weeks pregnant and wanted to have her baby at home naturally. They tell you thta she has been in labor for over 24 hours and suddenly began complaining of severe and tearing abdominal pain. What condition should the EMT suspect?

Ruptured uterus

26

When asked, a young female with abdominal pain replies that she is not sure if she is pregnant or not. Which one of the following questions provides the best opportunity to determine if the patient is pregnant?

"When was your last menstrual period?"

27

You have been called to assist another crew with the birth of a baby. On scene another EMT informs you that the mother's perineum tore and is bleeding heavily. What should you do?

Place a sterile dressing between the mother's vagina and rectum.

28

Are seizures during pregnancy a life-threatening emergency?

Yes, for the mother and fetus

29

Which statement indicates an understanding of the relationship between seizures and pregnancy?

"Prolonged seizures can easily cause the mother and baby to become hypoxic."

30

The EMT should recognize a full-term pregnancy in which one of the following patients?

21-year-old who is 39 weeks pregnant and feeling dizzy

31

A coworker is telling you about a recent run in which he provided care to a preschooler. Based on this description, you know that age of the patient would have been:

3-6 years

32

You are on scene of an MVC in which a 3-year-old was in a car seat in the backseat. The child appears not to be injured, but the mother would like her taken to the hospital for an evaluation. Since she will need a car seat for transport, what criteria would indicate that the car seat she is in cannot be used to safely transport the patient?

The car seat appears to have only been dented by the door handle.

33

At the scene of an MVC, you must remove an injured child from his car seat and fully immobilize him prior to transport to the hospital. What statement made by the lead EMT indicates that this procedure is being performed correctly?

"To get her on the long board, let's tilt the car seat backwards, and carefully slide her out headfirst."

34

A 2-month-old presents with labored breathing, fever, and coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals significant wheezing bilaterally. Based on this presentation, an EMT would recognize that the patient is most likely suffering from:

bronchiolitis

35

A mother asks you what causes her son to get bronchiolitis. You would inform her that it is caused by:

the respiratory syncytial virus.

36

Which of the following statements made by another EMT regarding treatment of the pediatric patient in the prehospital setting would you agree with?

"It is critical that the EMT be able to determine the respiratory status of the patient as this commonly is the reason for acute deterioration."

37

When providing care to the pediatric patient who has been injured or ill, the EMT must recognize that the most important aspect of care normally revolves around:

Airway and respiratory support

38

Croup is recognized as an illness that involves:

edema beneath the glottis.

39

The mother of a 3-year-old boy has called 911 because her son has a low-grade fever and difficulty breathing. On scene, you are suspicious that the boy is suffering from croup. Which of the following statements made by the mother would reinforce this suspicion?

"At night, he seems to get a barking-like cough."

40

You are by the side of a 2-year-old whose mother states he has had a cough for the past three days. His airway is patent and respirations labored. Intercostal retractions are accompanied by stridorous respirations. His skin is warm to hot and vital signs are as follows: pulse 152, respirations 28, SpO2 97%, and temperature 100.3°F. Breath sounds are clear and equal. Based on this presentation, you would suspect and treat the patient for:

croup

41

An 8-year-old child was chasing his dog when he ran out into the street and was struck by a car. He is responsive to verbal stimuli and has an unstable pelvis and a bruise to the side of his face. His airway is open and his breathing is rapid and shallow. His radial pulse is rapid and weak and his skin is cool, moist, and diaphoretic. He also has burns and abrasions to his back after being thrown by the car onto the hot pavement. Based on these assessment findings, the EMT would treat the patient for what condition?

Shock

42

On the scene of a medical emergency, you are directed to a 5-month-old baby in his crib. He responds to painful stimuli by whimpering and he is breathing at a rate of 50 breaths per minute. His airway is open and his brachial pulse is fast, weak, and difficult to locate. Assessment of his skin reveals it to be cool and pale in color. According to the mother, he has had vomiting and diarrhea for four days. She also reports that the father of the baby is a diabetic. Based on this information, the EMT would recognize what condition?

Shock

43

You suspect a very sick child to be in shock. His skin is dry, radial pulse weak, and blood pressure low. What statement made by the parents would reinforce this suspicion?

"He has had diarrhea for three days."

44

An 89-year-old female is short of breath and has a fever. Her SpO2 is low and she has crackles and coarse breath sounds to both lungs. When getting history from her family caregivers, which of the following would make you suspicious that the patient has aspiration pneumonia?

She was fine until just after eating lunch.

45

A new EMT asks you why the elderly are at a higher risk for developing pneumonia, as compared to those of a younger age. You inform him that the elderly are more susceptible to respiratory infections because of a(n):

Decreased cough reflex

46

When assessing a geriatric patient for pneumonia, the EMT must remember that:

A normal body temperature may be observed

47

You have been called for a 79-year-old female complaining of shortness of breath. Due to the increased respiratory rate, cough, and production of discolored sputum, you are suspicious of pneumonia. A family member asks you how she can have pneumonia, when her temperature is only 97.9°F. Your best response is:

"It is not uncommon for the elderly to have pneumonia without the signs of high fever or chills."

48

A 5-year-old boy who is drooling has suspected epiglottitis. His pulse rate is 144, respirations 156, and blood pressure 110/52. He is noncompliant with the pulse oximeter, but his skin is normal colored. Which statement indicates proper care of this patient?

"Let's give him high-concentration oxygen through a mask."

49

What disease or illness would you suspect when confronted with a pediatric patient exhibiting respiratory distress and audible inspiratory stridor but no cough?

Epiglottitis

50

On scene, a 6-year-old male who is short of breath will not allow EMRs to place a nonrebreather face mask on his face. Assessment indicates moderate respiratory distress with the following vital signs: pulse 124, respirations 24, blood pressure 98/56, and SpO2 93%. At this time, you:

use a nasal cannula with 2 liters oxygen.

51

A 15-year-old male with a history of seizures presents as lethargic but oriented. He takes the anticonvulsant Keppra and has no other medical history according to his mother. Of the following, what action would you take first?

Obtain a full set of vital signs

52

You have been asked to speak to a group of new mothers regarding the emergency treatment of a fever. During your presentation, one of the mothers asks you what temperature would cause a child to seize. Your response would be:

"It is not the specific temperature that is of concern, but the rate at which the body temperature rises."

53

After determining that a patient intentionally took an overdose of blood pressure medications, which of the following questions by the EMT would be most appropriate?

"HOw many did you take?" `

54

A frantic mother has contacted EMS because she believes that her 4-year-old daughter got into her blood pressure medications and ate three or four pills. She presents as awake and confused with pale skin that is cool and diaphoretic. Her pulse is rapid and respirations adequate. Vital signs are pulse 116, respirations 22, blood pressure 82/44, and SpO2 99%. After completing the primary assessment, your immediate action would be to:

obtain the name and dosage of the medication.

55

You are assessing a 5-year-old boy who is complaining of arm pain after falling down three steps. As you physically assess the patient, he tries to bite your hands. His mother is at his side. Which of the following statements is appropriate to make regarding the behavior of biting?

"I know that you do not feel good, but biting is not okay."

56

You are assessing a 6-year-old girl with possible pneumonia. She has labored breathing and a fever of 102°F. When you are assessing and classifying her respiratory status, which of the following signs would provide the strongest evidence that she is in decompensated or late respiratory failure?

Altered mental status

57

You have arrived on the scene to help a child who is short of breath. The mother is screaming hysterically that her 3-year-old boy cannot breathe, making assessment of the patient very difficult. Your initial action in the management of this situation would be to:

have your partner talk to the mother while you assess the child.

58

The increased pliability of the child's ribs makes him more prone to:

Bruising to the lung

59

You have been called for a 2-year-old girl who has been sick for two days. In preparing to assess the patient, it is important that you recognize that patients in this age group generally:

Do not like having their clothes removed

60

A new EMT asks you why the elderly are at a higher risk for developing pneumonia, as compared to those of a younger age. You inform him that the elderly are more susceptible to respiratory infections because of a(n):

Decreased cough reflex

61

A patient with postural hypotension would most likely make what statement?

"I get so dizzy when I get up off of the couch."

62

You are preparing to transport an 86-year-old female complaining of altered mental status and nausea and vomiting. Aspiration pneumonia would be best prevented by:

Transporting in a Semi-fowler's position

63

An 89-year-old female is short of breath and has a fever. Her SpO2 is low and she has crackles and coarse breath sounds to both lungs. When getting history from her family caregivers, which of the following would make you suspicious that the patient has aspiration pneumonia?

"She was fine until just after eating lunch."

64

An 83-year-old male has fallen down five stairs to the floor below. He hit his head and is complaining of a headache. When getting a history from this patient, what question should you ask first?

"What caused you to fall?"

65

A patient with kyphosis has fallen and is complaining of numbness in both arms. Regarding immobilization, you should:

place pillows in voids between the patient and the long board.
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66

The family of an 87-year-old female has called 911. She is confused and exhibiting improper and out of character behavior. They inform you that she is a diabetic, but takes pills and not insulin. They also state that he has been complaining of dizziness and has been drinking water nonstop as well as urinating. Assessment reveals adequate breathing, skin that is cool, and a radial pulse that is rapid and weak. Based on this history, you should be suspicious of and treat her for:

Elevated blood sugar

67

An 82-year-old female with nausea and vomiting has called 911. When obtaining her past medical history, she informs you that she suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA) two months ago. Based on this, what should the EMT expect to find?

The absence of any neurological deficits

68

A "silent" heart attack occurs when:

The usual chest pain is not present

69

In contrast to a living will, a "do not resuscitate" (DNR) order becomes valid when:

The patient develops cardiac arrest

70

ue to depressed pain perception, geriatric patients may have a "silent heart attack." Rather than experiencing chest discomfort, they may have commonly complain of

A. lower abdominal pain.
B. lower back pain.
C. Weakness and fatigue.
D. tingling in the fingers.

Weakness and fatigue

71

pulmonary embolism

blockage in the pulmonary arteries of the lungs
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72

When assessing a geriatric patient for pneumonia, the EMT must remember that:

A normal body temperature may be observed

73

You have been called to the side of a confused geriatric patient complaining of abdominal pain. Before palpating the patient's abdomen, you would first:

Inform the patient that you will be pressing on her abdomen

74

You have been called for a conscious and alert 83-year-old male complaining of a fever for three days. He has a history of peripheral vascular disease. When assessing the patient's circulation, you have a difficult time feeling his radial pulse. Your next action would be to:

Locate the patient's carotid pulse

75

You are preparing to transport an 86-year-old female complaining of altered mental status and nausea and vomiting. Aspiration pneumonia would be best prevented by:

Transporting in the semi-Fowler's position

76

You have just arrived by the side of an elderly patient who took excessive amounts of his daily medications after becoming confused about what to take and when. Which one of the following is the immediate priority in caring for this patient?

Evaluate and support the patient's airway and breathing.
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77

You have been called for an unknown medical emergency. On scene you are presented with an 84-year-old patient who is confused and does not obey commands. The best means of determining the patient's normal mental status would be to:

Question family members

78

The primary reason behind a patient using BiPAP at night when sleeping is to:

to keep the small airways open

79

A 92-year-old female informs you that she suffers from diabetic retinopathy. As such, you recognize that this condition has occurred in relation to:

Damage to blood vessels in the eye

80

The wife of a patient with terminal lung cancer and a DNR has called 911 because her husband's pulse oximeter alarmed after the SpO 2 fell below 85%. Assessment reveals him to be conscious and alert, slightly tachypneic with no abnormal lung sounds noted. In this case, which one of the following is most appropriate to perform first?

Determine SpO2 using your pulse oximeter.
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81

You have been dispatched to a residence for a 49-year-old male with a partially dislodged tracheostomy tube. At the patient's side, you note the trach tube to be protruding abnormally from the stoma in his neck. Your first action in caring for this patient should be to:

Evaluate the patient's airway and breathing