Module 4 - Topic 3-4: The immune system, Inflammation and Repair Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 4 - Topic 3-4: The immune system, Inflammation and Repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 4 - Topic 3-4: The immune system, Inflammation and Repair Deck (76):
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Inflammation

response of the body to tissue damage
maintains homeostasis

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How inflammation maintains homeostasis

removing injuring agent
preventing spread
repairing the barrier

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Basic symptoms of inflammation

redness
swelling
heat
pain
impaired tissue function

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Inflammation important events

changes in diameter and permeability of blood vessels
emigration of white blood cells into surrounding tissues
Production and release of chemical substances

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diapedesis

migration of white blood cells into surrounding tissues

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Acute inflammation

fairly minor
rapid onset but last a few days at max

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primary response of acute inflammation

release of inflammatory mediators

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inflammatory mediators - function

alter the diameter and permeability of blood vessels

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histamine - location

mast cells inside dermis

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Histamine - function

binds to specific receptors causing blood vessels to dilate, leading to redness of area
produces hives in allergic reactions

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erythema

redness and heat of area due to vasodilation

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Mast cells and basophils - function in inflammatory response

release potent mediators that act on infected cells
contain cystoplasmic granules

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Mast cells - location

connective and dermal tissues
dont circulate in blood stream

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Basophils - location

from bone marrow
released into blood circulation
may settle into tissues if stimulated

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cytoplasmic granules

store mediators of inflammation

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degranulation

extracellular release of mediators

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factors that induce degranulation

physical destruction - high temp
chemical substances - toxins and poisons
endogenous mediators - tissue proteases
immune mechanisms - IgE independent and dependent

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IgE independent

anafylatoxins (C5a,C3a,C4a) are formed during activation of complement system
degranulation is triggered through C5a receptors on surface of mast cells and basophils

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IgE dependent

elicited by aggregation of immunoglobin E (IgE) bound to high affinity receptors on surface of mast cells and basophils

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Chemotactic factors

released from sites of inflammation and stimulate amoeboid migration of leukocytes out of blood stream

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chemotaxis

chemical attraction to a site of injury

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protective leukocytes

die after destroying invading agents

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pus

presence of a large number of neutrophils

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leukocytosis

promotes production and release of leukocytes

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fibroblasts - inflammatory response

once debris and bacteria has been removed, fibroblasts synthesize new tissue components

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Fever

caused by pyrogens secreted by leukocytes exposed to bacteria in the body

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Chronic inflammation

if agents arent removed, tissue will proceed to chronic state, which persists for several weeks, months or years
starts as acute response but proceeds further

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Chronic inflammation - noticeable feature

replacement of neutrophils by large number of lymphocytes and monocytes

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lymphocytes and monocytes - function

second line of defense
bring with them additional defense power

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Immune system

specific defence system
systemic
has memory

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Agents - makeup

are tailor made so only attack specific target

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how agents recognise target

the body must receive prior exposure to the agent before it can build a proper defence

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Antigens

provoke immune response
foreign to body
usually proteins

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outer surface of bacteria and virsus

antigenic, contain a variety of foreign proteins

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antigenic determinants

certain parts of antigen are immunogenic

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immune system activation

releases either free antibodies to bind to antigenic determinants, destroying and neutralising foreign agent

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primary response to antigens

produce protective antibodies

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antibodies - production

produced by activated B lymphocytes

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Antibody binding

bind specifically to respective antigens to form larger structures called immune complexes

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Immune complex functions

neutralises toxic antigens
activate formation of inflammatory mediators
immune complexes on surface of bacteria activate complements
target structures for phagocytosis

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complements

plasma proteins that drill holes into bacteria cell membrane and cause bacteria to burst

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White blood cells - role in immune system

programming, activating and regualtion

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Humoral immunity

antibody mediated immunity
B lymphocytes

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Cellular immunity

cell mediated immunity
t lymphocytes

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B lymphocytes

produce antibodies
b cells

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Naiive b cells

has not been previously exposed to antigen, in lymphoid tissues

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naive b cell - role

produces unique antibody

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how antigens are produces

binding of antigen to correct b cell activates mitosis which produces large number of antibodies

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plasma cells

specialised b celles that release large amounts of sntibody

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memory cells

b lymphocytes as they remember the antigen and ready to respond to attack at any point

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T lymphocytes

display proteins on surface that behave like antibodies
arent secreted and only bind to antigens of surface of abnormal cells

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Antigen presenting cells

APC
specialised phagocytic leukocytes which digest antigens and present fragments of antigens on surface

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Abnormal cells

cancerous cells

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Helper T cells

react with APC

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Cytotoxic T cells

react with abnormal cells

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Activated helper T cells

stimulate activity of other lymphocytes by synthesising regulatory compounds called cytokine

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Helper T cell - TH1

participate in cell mediated immunity
control intracellular pathogens

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Helper T cell - TH2

provide help for B cells
essential for antibody mediated immunity
needed to control extracellular pathogens

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Activated Cytotoxic cells

physcially attack cell membrane causing abnormal cells to die

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Autoimmune disease

when the immune system loses the ability to recognise between foreign and self particles

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Multiple sclerosis

attacks myelin on axons of nerves in brain and spinal cord

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Diabetes Mellitus (type 1)

attacks the pancreas

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

attacks cartilage of bone joints

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

attacks the whole body and gives red wolf bite like rash

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complement cells

punch holes in cell membrane

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Antibody classes

IgG
IgM
IgA
IgE
IgD

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IgG

most abundant

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IgM

first type released in primary response
5 sided polymer

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IgA

in bodily secretions
2 polymer

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IgE

causes histamine response
increases allergy

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IgD

activates B cells

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Cellular immunity

made during childhood

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Humoral immunity - Active -Naturally acquired

active
infection, contact with pathogen

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Humoral immunity - Active - Artificially Acquired

vaccine
dead pathogen

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Humoral immunity - Passive - Naturally Acquired

antibodies pass from mother to foetus

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Humoral Immunity - Passive - Artifically Acquired

injection of erogenous antibodies