Module 4 - Topics 1-2: The Circulatory system and the Lymphatic system Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Module 4 - Topics 1-2: The Circulatory system and the Lymphatic system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 4 - Topics 1-2: The Circulatory system and the Lymphatic system Deck (170):
1

Blood functions

transport of nutrients and gases
transport of waste products away from cells
transport of hormones
regulation of body temp
regulation pH
regulation and maintenance of fluid volume
prevention of blood loss
prevention of infections

2

Erythrocytes

red blood cells
carry CO2
flexible and contain haemoglobin

3

leukocytes

white blood cells

4

Platelets

thrombocytes

5

Red blood cell production

in red bone marrow

6

Mature Red blood cells

no nucleus

7

blood groups

defined by specialised surface proteins and the presence of antigens A and B

8

haemoglobin molecule

composed of 4 protein sub units bound together and each unit contains iron centre (heme)

9

Heme

iron centre that carries an oxygen molecule

10

Erythropoietin

controls red blood cell production
produce in kidneys

11

White blood cell shape

circular containing circular nucleus

12

Red blood cell shape

flat disc

13

White blood cell function

protect against infection
assist in recycling cellular debris

14

Types of White blood cells

Granular and agranular

15

Granular white blood cells

have cytoplasmic granules, specialised lysosomes
which destroy bacteria

16

eosinophils

also as acidophils
granules that stain with acid (red) dyes

17

Basophils

granules stain with basic (blue) dye

18

Neutrophils

granules have neutral staining properties so take up both dyes and are stained purple

19

majority of granular leukocytes

are neutrophils

20

eosinphil function

protect body against parasites

21

Feature of granular leukocytes

multilobed nucleus that appear separated, but are actually joined by chromatin

22

Agranular leukocytes

without granules

23

Monocytes

agranular leukocytes that are primarily phagocytic cells that break down bacteria into smaller molecules that can be recognised by the immune system

24

Monocyte shape

large cells with a u shaped nucleus

25

Lymphocytes

agranular leukocytes, found in large numbers in lymphoid tissue

26

Lymphocyte shape

large spherical nucleus with thin outer rim of cytoplasm

27

T cells

lymphocytes that attack infected cells
mature in thymus

28

B cells

lymphocytes that produce antibodies
mature in red bone marrow

29

Chemotaxis

ability to sense and migrate towards chemical signals released by bacteria and damaged tissue

30

thrombocytes

platelets
small fragments of cells
no nucleus so last 10 days if not clotting

31

Thrombopoietin

produced by liver
stimulates bone marrow production of platelets

32

Platelet function

stick together and assist in clot formation and tissue repair

33

Plasma

90% water with salts, proteins and hormones

34

Plasma components

albumin
the blood clotting system
globulins

35

Albumin

major plasma protein that accounts for 60% of plasma protein
produced in liver

36

Albumin function

transports other molecules
buffers blood pH
contributing to the osmosis pressure
distribution of body heat

37

The blood clotting system

chemical reactions are triggered that contribute to the formation of a fibrous clot

38

thrombus

fibrous clot

39

Serum

plasma minus the clotting system proteins

40

Hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

41

hemostasis reaction phases

vascular spasm
platelet plug formation
coagulation (blood clotting)

42

Globulins

three types (alpha, beta and gamma)

43

Gamma globulins

antibodies produced by b lymphocytes during immune response

44

Heart shape

broad flat base - directed towards right shoulder
apex - points down towards left hip

45

Point of maximal intensity

where the apex comes in contact with chest wall

46

Right hand side of heart

receives deoxygenated blood from body and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation

47

Left side of heart

receives oxygenated blood from lungs and delivers it to body

48

Atrium

upper chamber
receives blood into heart

49

Ventricle

lower chamber
ejects blood out of heart
trabeculae carnae

50

Pulmonary circuit

delivers blood to and from lungs

51

Systemic circuit

serves the remainder of the body

52

Pulmonary artery

carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs

53

Pulmonary vein

carries oxygenated blood back to heart from body

54

Arteries

carry blood away from heart
thick tunica media
contains layers of elastin fibres
no valves

55

Veins

carry blood to heart
thin walls
very little elastin fibres
valves that prevent backflow
more fibrous layer

56

Cuspid valves

point values
controlled by tiny strings

57

chordae tendinea

tiny strings of tendon that control cuspid valves

58

papillary muscles

control pulling of the strings

59

Tricuspid valve

3 points
right side of heart between right atrium and ventricle

60

Bicuspid valve

2 points
left atrium and ventricle

61

Semi - lunar valves

in right ventricle at beginning of pulmonary artery
in left ventricle at beginning of aorta

62

Cardiac muscle tissue

myocardium
striated
involuntary
short, fat, branched cells with a few nuclei
with intercalated dics

63

intercalated discs

specialised connections that consist of ahesive connections and gap junctions

64

Adhesive connections

desmosomes, tiny rivets, that prevent the heart from ripping itself open when contracting

65

Gap junctions

tiny sieves that allow rapid communication between all cardiac cells

66

Gap junctions - membrane potential

behave like channels that enables changes in membrane potential to flow from one cell to the next very rapidly

67

Intrinsic conduction system of the heart

allows the heart to contract independently of stimulation by nervous system

68

autorhythmic cell

ability to spontaneously depolarise
special cell membrane ion channels
fastest cells located in SA node

69

purkinje fibres

extensions of autorhythmic cells

70

sinoatrial node

located at top right atrium that depolarise faster than any other cardiac tissue so it sets pace of heart

71

Atrioventricular node

recieves impulses from SA node
located in bottom of right atrium which delays impulses allowing the atria to complete the contraction before ventricles contract

72

AV bundle

top of interventricular septum which divide into 2 bundles and passes impulse to the left and right bundle branches
electrical link between atria and ventricles

73

left and right bundle branches

move the impulse down the cardiac septum towards apex

74

Purkinje fibres

transmit impulse to cardiac muscle tissue of ventricles

75

Capillaries

exchange nutrients and waste between tissue cells and blood stream
branch of arterioles

76

arterioles

branches of arteries

77

venules

made of converge capillaries
branches that merge to form veins

78

tunica intima

inner layer single layer of flattened epithelial resting on a thin layer of connective tissue, basement membrane

79

endothelium

inside layer of epithelial cells

80

tunica media

middle layer - concentric layers of smooth muscle cells

81

tunica externa

outermost layer - primarily connective tissue that attaches blood vessels to surrounding structures

82

Tunica media of arteries

thicker and bound by internal and external elastin fibre sheets to allow arteries to maintain diameter

83

veins - makeup

numerous internal values
thicker outer fibrous layer
small amounts of elastin

84

internal valves of viens

aid the flow of blood from body back to heart

85

capillaries makeup

consist of tunica intima

86

capillary waste transfer

direct diffusion and vesicular transport

87

tight junctions in capillaries

often incomplete which allows passage of molecules that are normally too large to diffuse

88

leaky capillary

means that there is a gradual flow of fluid out of blood stream into tissues

89

rate of flow

dependent on blood pressure within capillaries

90

extracellular fluid

interstitial fluid that remains within tissues

91

oedema

large portion of interstitial fluid in tissue

92

lympathic system role

return extracellular fluid to blood stream so normal blood volume and pressure can be maintained

93

lymphatic vessels

elaborate drainage system of blind ended capillary structures

94

lymph

clear plasma in lympathic vessels

95

lympathic vessel permability

more permeable than capillaries

96

lympathetic capillary makeup

lined inside by single layer of flattened epithelial cells that have overlapping endothelial cells to form flap like mini valves

97

cellular overlapping

allows fluid to enter capillaries when pressure outisde capillary is greater than inside

98

lymphatic ducts

large lympathic vessels
drain lymph directly back into major veins

99

right lymphatic duct

collects lymph from right arm and right side of head and chest

100

thoracic duct

collects lymph from rest of body

101

swelling of tissue

caused by an increase in permeability of blood vessels at sites of inflammation

102

lymph nodes

small filter units that filter lymph
contain phagocytic defence cells that ingest foreign materials
contain lymphocytes that produce antibodies to the foreign materials

103

macrophages

phagocytic defence cells made from monocytes

104

lymphoid organs

spleen
thymus
tonsils
lymph nodes
peyers patches

105

lymphoid organs

encapsulated within outer layer of connective tissue

106

lymph nodules

non encapsulated lymphoid tissues

107

palatine tonsils

either side at back of throat

108

lingual tonsils

base of tongue

109

Pharyngeal tonsils

back of nose

110

Tubal tonsils

around openings of auditory tubes

111

spleen function

storage of breakdown products of red blood cells
storage of blood platelets
lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance
reservoir of blood supply

112

Hypoxia

lack of oxygen
reduced number of RBC
insufficient haemoglobin

113

Anaemia

oxygen carrying capacity is too low to support normal metabolism

114

Blood Group A

a antigens antibody B

115

Blood Group B

b antigens antibody A

116

Blood Group AB

both

117

Blood Group O

neither, both antibodies

118

RH+

presence of RH factor

119

RH-

absence of RH factor

120

Antigen D antibodies

present when RH- individuals are exposed to RH+ blood

121

Pericardium

outer fibrous sac
inner serous layer that secretes fluid to prevent friction

122

Myocardium

thick cardaic walls
cardiomyocytes
striated

123

Endocardium

innermost surface that lines the heart chambers
endothelium continuation of blood vessels
simple squamous epithelium

124

Aorta

largest artery

125

Right atria

Blood enters 3 veins
superior and inferior vena cava

126

Left atria

blood enters via 4 pulmonary veins
fossa ovalis

127

cardiac septum

seperates left and right of heart

128

RIght ventricle

to pulmonary trunk

129

Left ventricle

to body via aorta

130

Ventricular septal defect

superior part of interventricular septum fails to form allowing mixture of blood

131

Coartation of aorta

aorta is narrowed, increased workload of left ventricle

132

Tetralogy of fallot

multiple defects
pulmonary trunk too narrow

133

Patent ductus arteriousus

ductus arteriousus is a normal foetal blood vessel that close after birth

134

"lub"

closing of atrioventricular valves

135

"dub"

closing of semilunar valves

136

ECG

electrical impulses generated by the heart are measured
shows current arising from electrical activity of heart

137

P wave

start
atrial depolarisation

138

QRS

middle
ventricular depolarisation

139

T wave

end
ventricular repolaristion

140

Homeostatic imbalance

SA or AV node block

141

Junctional rhythm

SA node nonfunctional
no p wave
AV node paces heart slowly

142

2nd Heart block

partial conduction from SA node
more p waves

143

Ventricular Fibrillation

total erractic contraction of ventricles

144

defibrillator

stops the heart in order to set pace again

145

Systole

period of ventricular contraction
blood ejected from heart

146

Diastole

period of ventricular relaxtion

147

Blood pressure

diastole and systole
measured in mmHG

148

Heart rate

pulse
number of cardiac cycles per time

149

pulse sites

9 common sites

150

pulse

pressure waves resulting from the expansion and recoil of the elastic arteries during each cycle

151

vasodilation

widening of the lumen of a blood vessels due to relaxation of smooth muscle within tunica media
increases blood flow
controlled by sympathetic nervous

152

Vasoconstriction

reduction of lumen diameter due to contraction of smooth muscle within tunica media
decrease in blood flow to the tissue
controlled by sympathetic system

153

Atherosclerosis

formation of fatty plaques on inside of artery
obstructed lumen

154

varicose veins

venous value weakening

155

continuous capillaries

tightly bound with small gaps

156

fenestrated capillaries

have pores

157

sinusoid capillaries

most permeable but limited location

158

papillary muscles relax

chordiae tendenae slack valves open

159

papillary muscles contract

chordae tendineae tight, valves close

160

vagus nerve

slows heart rate
parasympathetic

161

anatomical signs of inflammation

redness, swelling, heat, pain, imparied function

162

histological signs of inflammation

leukocyte accumulation

163

sickle cell anemia

cell stickiness and rigid shape causes aggulation and blocked vessels
causes mutation in haemoglobin beta gene

164

porphyria

low number of erythrocytes
pale skin and blue lips
reddish purple urine
causes an overproduction of porphyrin in heme

165

Neonatal jaundice

newborn skin colour appears orange due to bilibrubin build up

166

thrombocytopenia

spontaneous bleeding into tissue due to platelet defincency

167

oedema

fluid leakage from blood into tissues due to reduced levels of albumin

168

atherosclerosis

blood flow space is reduced, causes heart attack and stroke, due to fatty plaques in artery

169

elephantiasis

tissue swelling due to blocked lymph vessels

170

carbon monoxide poisoning

cherry red appearance, CO binds to heme group more successfully than O2