Module 4.1- Sensation and Perception at a Glance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 4.1- Sensation and Perception at a Glance Deck (37):
1

sensation

the process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those stimuli into neural signals

2

perception

involves attending to, organizing and interpreting stimuli that we sense

3

what 2 things are brains designed for?

brain is designed to detect patterns, and to make the external environment coherent

4

transduction

when specialized receptors transform the physical energy of the outside world into neural impulses

5

translating the physical energy from the outside world into neural energy

transduction

6

the doctrine of specific nerve energies

the theory that the different senses are separated in the brain

7

who proposed the doctrine of specific nerve energies?

German physiologist Johannes Müller

8

______ influences how we response to stimuli

experience

9

orienting response

we quickly shift our attention to stimuli that signal a change in our sensory world

10

sensory adaptation

The reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulus

11

what are the 3 stimulus thresholds?

1)Psychophysics
2)Absolute Threshold
3)Difference Threshold

12

Psychophysics

the field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and their intensity relate to psychological experience

13

who developed psychophysics

William Gustav Fechner

14

Absolute Threshold

the minimum amount o energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliably detected at least 50% of the time it is presented

15

what are the 5 absolute sensory thresholds?

vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste

16

difference threshold

the smallest difference between stimuli that can be reliably detected at least 50% of the time

17

Signal Detection Theory

a theory stating that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory experience and judgement made by the subject

18

what are the 4 possible outcomes of the signal detection theory?

Hit, False Alarm, Correct Rejection and Miss

19

Subliminal Perception

perception below the threshold of conscious awareness

20

what did merikle and skanes test?

tested subliminal weight loss tapes

21

how did merikle and skanes test subliminal weight loss tapes?

they assigned participants to:
1) experimental condition (subliminal weight loss tape)
2) placebo condition (subliminal dental anxiety prevention tape
3) waiting list

22

what were the 4 conditions Greenwald used of subliminal self-help tapes?

1) memory improvement (labeled correctly)
2) Self-esteem improvement (labeled correctly)
3) Memory improvement (labeled "memory improvement")

23

true or false: Greenwalds 4 conditions of subliminal self-help tapes showed that the cassette's label was a better predictor of improvement than the cassette's content

True

24

priming

when a previously viewed word makes a related word come to mind

25

what 2 things does priming influence?

1) word selection
2) preferences

26

gestalt psychology

an approach to perception that emphasizes that "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

27

what did vokey and rea study?

studied participants ability to comprehend messages played backwards

28

what percentage of accuracy did Vokey and Rea get on participants accuracy on judging the sex of the speaker

98.9%

29

what percentage of accuracy did Vokey and Rea get on participants accuracy on judging if the speaker was the same across audio clips

78.5%

30

what percentage of accuracy did Vokey and Rea get on participants accuracy on judging if the clip was in English, French or German

46.7%

31

what 5 things were used in the comprehension study?

nursery passages, christian passages, satanic messages, pornographic statements, advertising messages

32

what are the 2 types of processing?

1) bottom-up processing
2) top-down processing

33

bottom-up processing

when we perceive individual bits of sensory information (e.g., sounds) and use them to construct a more complex perception (e.g., a message)

34

top-down processing

when our perceptions are influenced by our expectations or by our prior knowledge

35

divided attention

paying attention to more than one stimulus or task at the same time

36

selective attention

focusing on one particular event or task so that you can accurately sense and perceive the information it might provide (e.g., watching the road while driving)

37

inattentional blindness

a failure to notice clearly visible events or objects because attention is directed elsewhere