Module 5 - Topic 1 - 2A: The Respiratory System and The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 5 - Topic 1 - 2A: The Respiratory System and The Digestive System Deck (152):
1

Conducting Region

a system of tubes that provide passage for air to enter and leave lungs

2

Respiratory Region

site of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood stream and atmosphere

3

Conducting Region - place

begins with nose and extends down into lungs

4

Structures that air passes to

nasal or oral cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

5

Function of conducting region

pathway for gases to enter and leave body
trap and expel most particulate matter

6

How particles are trapped

by mucus produced by goblet cells

7

Cilia function

produce currents that sweep mucus and particles towards oesophagus where it is spat out or swallowed and digested

8

Epithelium of upper respiratory tract

multiple layers of squamous epithelial that resists wear and tear and assists food transportation

9

Mucus function

traps particles and moistens and warms incoming air, prevents airways from drying out

10

branching of airways - structure

gradual change in structure
epithelium becomes flatter and cilia and goblet cells disappear as you move down bronchial tree

11

smooth muscle function

enables diameter of airways and regulates air flow

12

broncho - constricition

contraction of smooth muscle
causes narrowing of airways

13

broncho-dilation

relaxation of smooth muscle
causes opening of airways

14

Respiration region - function

gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

15

Respiration region - structures

respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

16

Alveoli - function

site of gas exchange

17

Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts - function

passage for gas to enter and leave alveoli

18

Alveolar sacs

bunches of alveoli

19

Respiratory membrane

barrier in each alveolus through which gas diffuses

20

Respiratory membrane - make up

alveolar Type 1 cell
endothelial cell
collagen fibres

21

Alveolar type 1 cells

single flattened alveolar epithelial cell

22

Endothelial cell

single flattened blood capillary epithelial cell

23

type 2 cells

produce surfactant

24

Surfactant

reduces surface tension of watery fluid that coats the surface of alveolus

25

SIDS

decreased surfactant production

26

Macrophages in alveoli

maintain sterility of alveoli

27

alveolar pores

allows air pressure throughout lungs to be equalised and provide alternate routes for air to pass to any alveoli

28

Intercostal muscles

skeletal muscles that surround the thoracic cavity

29

What surrounds thoracic cavity

ribcage
skeletal muscles
diaphragm

30

inspiration

breathing in

31

expiration

breathing out

32

how contraction occur

coordinated contraction of intercostal and diaphragm muscles

33

thoracic cavity - volume increase

pull ribcage upwards and outwards

34

Increase in thoracic cavity volujme

decrease in pressure causing negative pressure

35

negative pressure

causes atmospheric air to be sucked into lungs

36

decrease in thoracic cavity volume

ribcage is pressed inwards, pressure in cavity decreases, and air is pushed out

37

pleural cavities

surrounds each lung

38

pleural cavity - makeup

thin cavities formed of serous membrane

39

pleura

serous membrane covering lungs

40

visceral pleura

covers each lung

41

parietal pleura

lines thoracic wall

42

decreases in pressure in thoracic cavity

pull on pleural cavities, promotes expansion of lungs

43

increase in pressure in thoracic cavity

exerts pressure on pleural cavities which causes lungs to expel air

44

intrapleural pressure

always slightly less than atmospheric pressure within alveoli

45

imbalance in pressure

prevents collapse of alveoli and lungs

46

pleurisy

inflammation of pleurae, as a result of pneumonia, hinders breathing

47

atelectasis

lung collapse
air enters the pleural cavity through chest wound or rupture of visceral pleura

48

pneumothorax

presence of air within intrapleural space

49

movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide

simple diffusion

50

concentration of gases

referred to as partial pressure

51

Atmospheric pressure

composite of all partial pressures

52

one atmosphere

760 mmHg

53

what regulates diffusion of gases

relative solubility and difference in partial pressure

54

carbon dioxide water solubility

20 times more soluble in water that oxygen

55

oxygen solubility

poorly soluble in water and plasma

56

majority of oxygen - transport

carried by haemoglobin

57

higher the concentration of oxygen

better chance of oxygen being bound to haemoglobin

58

oxyhaemoglobin

haemoglobin and oxygen combination
HbO2

59

deoxyhaemoglobin

haemoglobin that has released attached oxygen

60

fully saturated

when all four heme groups are bound to oxygen

61

allosteric binding

the chances of the first molecule enhances the binding of the second heme group

62

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen - factors

concentration of oxygen
temp
blood Ph
concentration of carbon dioxide
concentration of organic molecules

63

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen -
concentration of oxygen

produces an oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve

64

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen - temp

increasing temp aids oxygen unloading

65

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen - blood pH

if blood is too acidic, unloading is accelrated

66

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen - concentration of carbon dioxide

increasing concentration produces acidic pH therefore oxygen unloading is increased

67

rate at which haemoglobin binds or releases oxygen - concentration of organic chemicals

high levels of BPG (produced by red blood cells) aids oxygen unloading

68

loading and unloading of oxygen equation

lung -->
HHb + o2 --> Hb-O2 + H+
tissues

69

when blood travels through lungs - oxygen concentration

enhances the binding of oxygen

70

carbon dioxide reacts with water

forms carbonic acid which disscoiates into bicarbonate ions

71

carbonic anhydrase

increases bicarbonate formation

72

carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer

resists shifts in blood pH and aids maintains homeostasis

73

chloride shift

chloride ions move from plasma to red blood cells to counterbalance the quick diffusion of bicarbonate ions

74

carbon dioxide binding

binds to amino acids within globin protein chains of haemoglobin molecule

75

control of respiration

activity of nerves in hypothalamus, medulla oblongata and pons
stimulation of chemoreceptors

76

Hypothalamus control

strong emotions and pain activate sympathetic nerve centres
sends signals to respiratory centres that modify the rate and depth of respiration

77

Medulla Oblongata control

by 2 neurons
dorsal respiratory group
ventral respiratory group

78

dorsal respiratory group

inspiratory centre controls basic pace and rhythm

79

Ventral respiratory group

expiratory centre role in forced breathing when strenous breathing is required

80

The pons control

pnemotaxic centre and apneustic centre

81

pnemotaxic centre

fine tunes the breathing rhythm and prevents lung over inflation

82

Apnuestic centre

prolongs inspiration and causes breath holding in inspriatory phase

83

The chemoreceptors control

respond to changing levels of CO2, H+ and O2 and found in two location

84

locations of chemoreceptors

central ( in CNS)
peripheral ( in carotid arteries of neck and aorta)

85

digestive system

long winding tube with several specialised organs attached at various points along its length

86

Main tube like part of digestive system

gastrointestinal tract

87

digestive system - function

acquire nutrients and water from the external environment and removes wastes

88

Ingestion

takes place within mouth and oesphagus

89

Propulsion

continually occurs throughout GI tract

90

Digestion

takes place in mouth, stomach and small intestine

91

Nutreint and water absorption

takes place in small and large intestine

92

Defecation

removal of wastes

93

Makeup of GI tract

epithelial lining changes throughout but begins and ends with multiple layers of flattened cells in mouth and anus
in between mouth and anus epithelium varies in accordance with activites

94

Mucosa

inner most layer of GI tract
secretes mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones
absorbs nutrients
protects against infection by possessing mucosa associated lymphiod tissue

95

Muscularis Mucosae

thin layer of smooth muscle that produces twitching contractions of overlying epithelium and prevents material from building up and clogging GI tract
folds the epithelium of small intestine into villi

96

Submucosa

rich supply of blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes and lymph vessels

97

Muscularis

inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle
propels contents of GI tract forward and assists digestion

98

Segmentation

mixing of contents

99

peristalsis

propulsion of contents

100

serosa

protective outer layer composed of connective tissue

101

Oral cavity

contains salivary ducts, teeth, tongue and taste buds
initial site of chemical and mechanical digestion

102

Oropharynx

back of throat, below nasopharynx
contains tonsils and epiglottis

103

Oesophagus

muscular tube
goes through diaphragm and joins to stomach

104

gastro oesphogael sphincter

band of circular smooth muscle that stops food from the stomach reentering the oesophagus

105

sphincter

rubber band like valve

106

gastric reflux and oesophageal ulcers

weakening of gastro-oesophageal

107

Stomach

storage tank where chemical digestion of proteins begins
walls contain 3 layers of smooth muscle - allows churning and mixing of food
in stomach epithelium, deep gastric pits lead down into gastric glands

108

Chyme

creamy paste of digested food made in stomach

109

rugae

mucosal surface that contains large longitudinal folds which allow expansion of stomach

110

pyloric sphincter

joins stomach to small intestine

111

Parietal cells

gastric gland - secrete digestive acid

112

Chief cells

gastric glands - produce pepsinogen

113

pepsinogen

is converted into active pepsin that digests proteins in the presence of HCL

114

Enteroendocrine cells

gastric glands - release substances like gastrin and other hormones

115

gastrin

stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl

116

Intrinsic factor

produced by stomach
must be present for B12 to be absorbed

117

small intestine

main site of nutrient absorption
divided into 3 sections
duodenum, jejunum and ileum

118

duodenum

first section, bile duct from liver and pancreatic duct from pancreas

119

jejunum

middle part of small intestine

120

ileum

last part of small intestine

121

brush border cells

individual intestinal epithelial absorptive cells comprising each villi
contain disaccharidases

122

disaccharidases

enzymes which aid in digestion of carbs and sugars

123

lipase

enzyme that digests lipids

124

proteinases

enzyme that aids digestion of proteins

125

Villus structure

contains a blood capillary system and lymphatic vessel

126

blood capillary system

absorbs amino acids from proteins and simple sugars

127

Lymphatic vessel

absorbs fats into lympathic system

128

crypts

small intestinal mucosa pits that secrete intestinal juices

129

Duodenal glands

in duodenum submucosa secrete alkaline bicarbonate rich mucus that helps neutralise the acid entering from stomach

130

goblet cells

produce mucus and protect epithelium from HCL

131

Large intestine

main site of water absorption
no villi
many goblet cells
contains bacterial flora

132

bacterial flora

bacteria that colonises the large intestine and ferment some of the indigestible carbs
synthesises B complex vitamins and vitamin K

133

teniae coli

3 ribbons that reduce the longitudinal muscle in wall of large intestine
causes large intestine to pucker up into pocket like sacs

134

haustra

pocket like sacs in large intestine

135

large intestine - division

4 parts
cecum
colon
rectum
anal canal

136

cecum

pouch like section that is just after ileocaecal valve that contains appendix

137

colon

ascending colon (upwards)
transverse colon (across)
descending colon (down)
sigmoid colon (s shaped)

138

rectum

straight out

139

anal canal

contains internal and external anal sphincters

140

Epiglottis

covers hole in trachea
stops food from entering lungs
elastic cartilage

141

Larynx

patent open airway
switches mechanism to route air and food
made of cartilage
voice production

142

pitch of voice box

length and tension of folds

143

Voice box

loudness depends on force of air stream
slow vibrate = deep voice

144

Defacation

mass movement makes sensory receptors signal involuntary sphincters

145

Diverticulitis

associated with aging
pressure causes bulging pockets

146

Why we vomit

sensory impulses to brain
abdominal skeletal muscles and diaphragm contract
oesophagus sphincter releases

147

gamma cells

reduces appetite
releases pancreatic polypeptide

148

epsilon cells

secretes ghrelin
hunger hormone
secreted into stomach before meals

149

uvula

flap that stop food from going up into back of nose

150

pleurae

serous sac encasing each lung

151

inhaling

muscles contract and pleural and thoracic pressure is less than atmospheric pressure

152

exhaling

muscles relax and pleural and thoracic pressure is bigger than atmospheric