Module 6 - Topic 1-2: Sexual Reproduction and the Male Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6 - Topic 1-2: Sexual Reproduction and the Male Reproductive System Deck (72):
1

Meiosis

reshuffling of chromosomes during gamete production
increases genetic diversity
enables adaption

2

Fertilization

fusion of gametes to form complete organism

3

Chromosomes

2 sister chromatids that are joined by a centromere

4

Karotype

total 23 pairs

5

autosomes

22 homologous pairs of body chromosomes

6

sex chromosomes

1 pair

7

xx

female

8

xy

male

9

Genetic crossover

occurs in meiosis 1 in prophase 1
pairing up and close alignment of homologous chromosomes allows this to occur

10

Disjunction

when each gamete receives an x chromosome

11

Mitosis divisions

1

12

crossover of homologous pairs - mitosis

doesnt occur

13

daughter cell number and genetic composition - mitosis

two
each is identical to mother cell

14

roles in body - mitosis

produces cells for growth and tissue repair

15

meiosis divisions

2

16

crossover - meiosis

occurs in prophase 1

17

daughter cell number and genetic composition

4
each hapliod has half as many chromosomes as mother cell and is genetically different

18

roles in body - meiosis

produces reproductive cells

19

Non disjunction

chromosomes do not separate during meiosis

20

aneuploidy

incorrect diploid number of chromosomes

21

Non disjunction of chromosomes

often lethal

22

trisomy 21

downs syndrome
3 21 chromosomes

23

Non disjunction of sex chromosomes

one daughter cell gets both x chromosomes and one gets none

24

triplo X

no exhibitable features

25

turners syndrome

XO
ova has no x chromosome
sterile
webbed neck with no secondary sexual features

26

Klinefelters syndrome

XXY
in men only

27

Congenital Anomalies

infectious diseases
teratogens
congenital disorders

28

Function of male reproductive system

deliver sperm to female
production of male gametes
production of male sex hormones

29

Parts of the male reproductive system

tunica vaginalis
spermatic cord
epididymis
testes
penis
urethra
scrotum
dartos muscle

30

tunica vaginalis

pouch of serous membrane that covers testes
derived from the vaginal process of peritoneum

31

spermatic cord

fibrous connective tissue sheath
contains vans deferens, blood and lympathic vessels and nerve fibres

32

sperm development

in seminiferous tubules and epididymis

33

vas deferens

directs and propels sperm into urethra, after sperm has passed through epididymis
transports sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory ducts for production of ejaculation

34

spermatogenesis

involves meiosis
requires hormonal stimulation
lasts entire life

35

Seminiferous tubules

sperm factories
divided into lobules
connected to epididymis via rete testis

36

outer layer of seminiferous tubules

stem cells from which sperm arises
located near basement membrane of tubules

37

spermatogonia

sperm stem cells

38

inner core of seminiferous tubules

mature spermatozoa developing
located in tubule lumen

39

Supporting cells of seminiferous tubules

sertoli cells
leydig cells

40

sertoli cells

sustentocytes
located in walls of tubules
supply nutrients to sperm
form blood testicular barrier
secrete hormones that moderate sperm production

41

leydig cells

interstitial cells
located inbetween tubules
secrete testosterone
promote sperm maturation

42

spermatozoa head

nuclear material
acrosome

43

acrosome

releases enzyme hyaluronidase and proteinases to facilitate ovum penetration

44

spermatozoa midpiece

contains many mitochondria to provide energy

45

spermatozoa tail

flagellum that propels sperm
contains microtubules

46

perfect sperm shape

oval head and long tail

47

testes

contain 1-4 seminiferous lobules surrounded by 5 layers of smooth muscle like myoid cells

48

scrotum

supporting muscles help regulate temperature
dartos and cremaster

49

dartos muscle

skinned
smooth

50

cremaster muscle

suspender
skeletal

51

Epididymis

sperm storage until ejaculation
highly coiled
site of maturation and learning to swim

52

surface area of epididymis

allows absorption of testicular fluid to feed sperm

53

inguinal hernia

more common in males
due to width of inguinal canal to allow spermatic cord

54

urethra

terminal portion of the male duct system
transports both urine and semen

55

ABP

prompts spermatogenic cells to bind to testosterone which triggers spermatogenesis

56

seminal glands

joins with vas deferens
secretes alkaline fluid, fructose fluid and hormones to increase sperm motility

57

prostate gland

doughnut shaped
encircles urethra

58

prostate fluid

activates sperm
milky
slightly acidic
contains prostate specific antigen

59

bulbo urethral gland

pea sized
produced thick clear mucus for lubrication of urethra and glans penis
neutralisation of acidic urine left in urethra

60

semen

milky white sticky mixture
contains sperm, testicular fluid and accessory gland secretions
neutralises acid environment

61

penis

copulatory organ of male
delivers sperm to female reproductive tract
excitation leads to erection or ejaculation

62

erection

leads to parasympathetic relex releasing local nitric oxide
relaxes smooth muscle and dilates arterioles of penis
leads to engorgement
opens urethra ready for ejaculation

63

ejaculation

propulsion of semen from male duct system
under sympathetic control
triggered by critical levels of erection provocation
bladder sphincter constricts

64

primary spermatocyte

daugther cell becomes physically separated from spermatogonia and bloodstream and enters meiosis

65

blood testis barrier

barrier between spermatogonia and developing sperm cells
prevents immunological responses to genetically foreign cells

66

secondary spermatocytes

product of first meiotic division

67

spermatids

product of secondary meiotic division
small round haploid cells without sperm characteristics

68

spermatozoa

developing spermatids leaving the epithelium of seminiferous tubules

69

hormonal regulation

hypothalamus releases GnRh which acts of anterior pituitary
anterior pituitary releases LH and FSH
seminiferous tubules produce inhibin
inhibin and testosterone inhibit production of gnRH, LH and FSH via negative feedback

70

LH

controls production of testosterone by leydig cells

71

FSH

controls spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules
stimulates release of ABP

72

ABP

prompts spermatogenic cells to bind to testosterone