Module 8.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 8.1 Deck (16)
1

muscles that control the digestive system and other organs

smooth muscles

2

muscles that control movement of the body in relation to the environment

skeletal muscles

3

muscles that have properties intermediate between those of smooth and skeletal muscles (heart muscles)

cardiac muscles

4

How do neurons attach to muscles?

by the neuromuscular junction

5

What neurotransmitter innervates skeletal muscles?

acetylcholine

6

Explain how a pair of antagonistic muscles work.

You have a flexor muscle that brings the body part in and a extensor muscle that straightens the body part.

7

Describe Myasthenia Gravis.

It is a disease in which the immune system forms antibodies that attack the acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

8

fibers that use fast contractions, fatigue rapidly and whose processes are aerobic

fast-twitch fibers

9

fibers have slower contractions, do not fatigue and whose process is anaerobic

slow-twitch fibers

10

What the difference between sprinters and marathon runners?

Sprinters use fast-twitch muscles primarily and marathon runners use slow-twitch fibers primarily

11

What is the purpose of proprioceptors?

They detect the position or movement of a part of the body.

12

What is the stretch reflex?

a reflexive contraction of a muscle caused by a stretch of that muscle

13

How is a stretch reflex accomplished using the muscle spindle?

When the muscle spindle stretches, its sensory nerves send a message back to the muscles around the spindle and this causes a contraction

14

Explain how the Golgi Tendon Organ works.

It prevents muscles from damaging themselves by contracting too much. It does this by detecting the tension that results in a muscle contraction. The impulses travel to the spinal cord, where they excite interneurons that inhibit the motor neurons.

15

a consistent automatic response to stimuli

relex

16

What is the difference between a ballistic movement and one that uses feedback?

A ballistic movement happens all at once and can not be altered, once started. Movements that use feedback can be adjusted after they are started.