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Flashcards in Module 9 Deck (28):
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1a. Define: Atom

The smallest chemical unit of matter

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1b. Define: Molecule

Two or more atoms linked together to make a substance with unique properties

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1c. Define: Photosynthesis

The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food

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1d. Define: Metabolism

The sum total of all processes in an organism that convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions

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1e. Define: Receptors

Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment

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1f. Define: Precocial

A term used to describe offspring that are born able to hear, see, move about, regulate body temperature, and eliminate waste without a parent's help

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1g. Define: Altricial

A term used to describe offspring that are born without at least one of the following abilities: hear, see, move about, regulate body temperature, or eliminate waste

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1h. Define: Cell

The smallest unit of life in creation

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2. What are the four criteria for life:

I. All life forms contain deoxyribonucleic acid, which is called DNA

II. All life forms have a method by which they extract energy from the surroundings and convert it into energy that sustains them.

III. All life forms can sense changes in their surroundings and respond to those changes.

IV. All life forms reproduce.

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3. What does DNA provide to a living organism?

information

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4. Compared to other molecules, is DNA big or small?

big

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5. Does DNA store its information more efficiently or less efficiently than a computer?

significantly more efficient

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6. DNA is made up of two basic parts: the backbone and the nucleotide bases.

a. Which part stores the information?
b. Which part forms the double-helix structure?

a. The nucleotide bases

b. The backbone

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7. Which nucleotide base will link to adenine? Which will link to cytosine?

Thymine

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8. One half of a portion of DNA has the following sequence:

cytosine, guanine, adenine, guanine, thymine, thymine

What is the sequence of nucleotide bases on the other half of this portion?

guanine, cytosine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, adenine

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9. One half of a portion of DNA has the following sequence:

thymine, guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine, guanine

What is the sequence of nucleotide bases on the other half of this portion?

adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, adenine, cytosine

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10. What is the name of the chemical that plants make for food?

glucose

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11. What is the name of the chemical that plants often store their food as?

starch

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12. For most organisms, metabolism requires food and something else. What the that something else?

oxygen

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13. Metabolism produces energy and usually two other things. What are they?

carbon dioxide & water

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14. An organisms's receptors no longer. Which of the four criteria of life will the organism not be able to perform?

sense & respond to change

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15. Consider the difference between a shark and an anchovy. Both are fish. The first is a fierce hunter that rarely is eaten by any other animal. The second is a major source of food for many other fish in the sea. Which would you expect to have more offspring: two shark parents or two anchovy parents?

The anchovy parents

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16. Every once in a while, a female cat will be born sterile. This means that the cat cannot have kittens. Does this mean that the cat is not alive, since it cannot reproduce?

No

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17. Is the population of people on this earth becoming a problem?

no

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18. See figure #18 on page 240

a. organelles
b. nucleus
c. cytoplasm
d. membrane

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19. In which organelle is most of the DNA stored?

nucleus

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20. How many basic kinds of cells are there? Name them

3: plant cells, animal cells, & cells from bacteria

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21. If a scientist uses a microscope to examine a cell from a mouse, a cell from a leaf, and a cell from a cat, how many different basic kinds of cells will she see?

two