Module 9: Fundamentals of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Module 9: Fundamentals of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 9: Fundamentals of the Nervous System Deck (14):
1

Cell body

Also called perikaryon or soma
Contains the usual organelles except centrioles (needed for mitosis, therefore cannot replicate)
Contains Nissl bodies

2

Nissl bodies

Unique to neurons
Specialized layers of rough ER
Synthesize neurofibrils and microtubules for material transport within the cell

3

Interneurons

Also called association neurons
Lie entirely within the central nervous system
Receive input from sensory (afferent) neurons and communicate with one another or with motor (efferent) neurons

4

Neuroglia

Also called glia
Do not conduct nerve impulses (stimuli)
Support, nourish, and protect the neurons
Capable of mitosis

5

Six types of neuroglia

Astrocytes (CNS)
Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Microglia (CNS)
Ependymal cells (CNS)
Schwann Cells (Neurolemmocytes) (PNS)
Satellite cells (PNS)

6

Nerve

Bundle of nerve cell fibers (axons and dendrites) that follow the same path
Usually contains both sensory (afferent) neurons and motor (efferent) neurons
Found only in the PNS

7

Tract

A bundle of nerve cell fibers
Found only in the CNS

8

Ganglia

Clusters of neuron cell bodies
Found only in the PNS

9

Nuclei

Clusters of neuron cell bodies
Found only in the CNS

10

Neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells)

Form myelin sheath in the PNS

11

Neurolemma

Plasma membrane of neurolemmocytes
Responsible for nerve regeneration

12

Oligodendrocytes

Form myelin sheath in the CNS
No plasma membrane

13

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Only neurotransmitter released between neurons and skeletal muscles

14

Resting state

ECF - higher Na+ and Cl-
ICF - higher K+ and negatively charged proteins (Pr-)