Flashcards in "Molecular & Cellular Princ Med Minerals and Mineral Deficiency Patricia Kanepopp" 3/25 Deck (12):
What vitamin deficiencies can cause megaloblastic/macrocytic anemia?
Vitamin B9, folate
Vitamin B12, cobalamine
Too much folate can mask the symptoms of B12 deficiency (the folate trap).
Microcytic anemia is fron iron deficiency.
____ deficiency inhibits DNA synthesis by decreasing availability of purines and dTMP.
Folate is a precursor of THF.
What are the major barriers to iron absorption?
1. release of Fe3+ from food
2. availability of reducing agents to make fe3+ to fe2+ (ie vitamin C)
What control mechanism does the body have when there is sufficient iron?
Hepcidin signals iron sufficiency and prevents fe2+ from the duodenal mucosal cell by downregulating the exporter.
T/F: Copper and zinc can compete for the same transporter in their initial uptake.
What is Menkes disease?
Menkes disease comes from mutations in the Cu transporter ATP7A. It is exhibited as a Copper deficiency, which has anemia, hypercholesterolemia, and other stuff.
What causes the copper overload in Wilson's disease?
Same as in Menke's disease, ATP7A. Copper is a redox-active metal that can cause severe damage to cells and tissues. Copper deposits in the eye (Kayser-Fleisher ring) and the liver.
Poor wound healing, dermatitis, reduced taste acuity, poor growth, and impaired sexual development in children are symptoms of what deficiency?
Zinc deficiency. Zinc is a cofactor and plays a structural role in proteins.
What is the function of chromium in the body?
Chromium is a component chromodulin, which facilitates insulin binding to its receptor.
Chromium deficiency manifests as glucose tolerance (reduced insulin effectiveness)
What is Keshan disease?
Keshan disease is seen in areas where there is little dietary selenium, and results in cardiomyopathy and cretinism.
What are the most common vitamin deficiencies in children?
Iron and calcium
In teenagers, calcium, magnesium, possibly vitamins A, C and B6 because they are growing so rapidly.