Molecular Evolution (DNA/protein record in primate evolution) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Molecular Evolution (DNA/protein record in primate evolution) Deck (14)
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1

Homologs

similar genes across multiple species

2

Molecular Clock Hypothesis

genetic differences between two species is proportional to the time they diverged from common ancestor

3

HAR1 (human accelerated region 1)

DNA sequence found in all vertebrates: unchanged until human lineage, codes for RNA molecule: HAR1 plays a key role in brain cerebral cortex development

4

FOXP2

gene found in families affected by a speech disorder, regulates expression of several other genes: including several involved in development

5

Meiosis

Form of cell division that produces gametes, reduces # of chromosomes by half, full chromosome restored during fertilization: genetic variation --> chromosome/gene shuffling during meiosis

6

Chromosomal shuffling/Crossing over

genetic variation during meiosis

7

Point Mutations

single/few nucleotides, deletions/insertions/frame-shift mutations; nonsense (change to STOP), missense (different amino acid)

8

New Allele

same location, small change: does not increase amount of info in genome, new gene increases information/different location

9

Unequal crossing over

alignment during meiosis is imperfect, some cells lose or gain genes/exons

10

Transposition (jumping genes)

move around in genome, some make copies: some bring new functions to existing genes by inserting exons

11

Retroposition

Type of transposable element: reverse transcriptase makes DNA complementary (CDNA) to the mRNA --> inserted somewhere in genome/takes on new function

12

Transposases

enzymes that catalyze transposition

13

Mobilome

genetic elements that move/have moved around within genome/across genomes (transposons, plasmids, bacteriophages)

14

Horizontal Gene Transfer

mobile mechanism that contributes to spread of antibiotic resistance