Molecular Structure Flashcards Preview

MCAT O CHEM > Molecular Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Molecular Structure Deck (18):
1

Structural isomers

Only share molecular formula (constitutional isomers). Must have same molecular weight

2

Stereoisomers

Share same atomic connectivity but differ in how they're arranged in space

3

Conformational isomers

Differ in rotation around single (sigma) bonds
Most similar of all isomers

4

Configurational isomers

Interconverted only by breaking bonds

5

Angle strain

Created by stretching or compressing angles from normal size

6

Torsional strain

From eclipsing conformations

7

Nonbonded strain

from interactions between substituents attached to nonadjacent carbons

8

Enantiomers

Non-superimposable mirror images.
Same chemical and physical properties except rotation of plane-polarized light and reactions in a chiral environment

9

Diastereomers

Non mirror-image stereoisomers. Differ at some but not all chiral centers

10

Principal quantum number, n

Describes energy level (shell) in which an electron resides and indicates the distance from the nucleus to the electron. 1 to infinity

11

Azimuthal quantum number, l

Determines subshell in which an electron resides. 0 to n-1
l=0, s
l=1, p
l=2, d
l=3, f

12

Magnetic quantum number, ml

Orbital in which an electron resides
-l to l
s spherical
p dumbbell shaped

13

Spin quantum number, ms

only values +/- 1/2

14

Bonding orbitals

head-to-head or tail-to-tail overlap of atomic orbitals of same sign and are energetically favorable

15

Antibonding orbitals

head-to-head or tail-to-tail overlap of atomic orbitals that have opposite signs and are energetically favorable

16

sp3

25% s character, 75% p character. Form tetrahedral geometry with 109.5 degree bond angles.
Carbons with all single bonds

17

sp2

33% s 66%p
trigonal planar geometry with 120 degree bond angles
carbons with one double bond

18

sp

50% s 50%p character
linear geometry, carbons with a triple bond or two double bonds