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Flashcards in Molecules of Life Deck (40):
1

Carbohydrates

any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.

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Monosaccharides

any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.

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Disaccharide

any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.

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Polysaccharide

a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.

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Lipid

any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.

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Phospholipid

a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule, e.g., lecithin.

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Wax

a sticky yellowish moldable substance secreted by honeybees as the material of honeycomb; beeswax. Is an example of a lipid

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Steroid

any of a large class of organic compounds with a characteristic molecular structure containing four rings of carbon atoms (three six-membered and one five). They include many hormones, alkaloids, and vitamins. Example of a lipid.

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Functional group

a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.

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Polymer

a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins.

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Monomer

a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

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Dehydration

The process of removing water from a substance or compound.

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Nucleic Acid

a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.

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Condensation Reaction

the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid.

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RNA

ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.

16

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.

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Nucleotide

a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Adenosine Triphosphate

a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate, ADP ) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction.

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Isomer

each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.

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Synthesis

the production of chemical compounds by reaction from simpler materials.

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Hydrolysis

the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.

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Protein

any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.

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Amino Acid

a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.

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Substrate


a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular.
the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.
the substance on which an enzyme acts.

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Polypeptide

a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.

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Enzyme

a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

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Active Site

a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.

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Peptide Bond

A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.

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Macromolecule

a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.

30

Who is Leeuwenhoek

Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) ... Antony van Leeuwenhoek was an unlikely scientist. ... It was he who discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more.

31

Who is Hooke

No portrait survives of Robert Hooke. ... Hooke's reputation in the history of biology largely rests on his book Micrographia, published in 1665. ... Hooke had discovered plant cells -- more precisely, what Hooke saw were the cell walls in cork tissue.

32

Endoplasmic Reticulum

a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. There is two kinds of ER rough and smooth

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Nuclear envelope

A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells. The nuclear membrane consists of two lipid bilayers—the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane.

34

Golgi

Golgi Apparatus - Packing Things Up. The Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is found in most cells. It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It was named after Camillo Golgi, an Italian biologist.

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Lysosome

an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.

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Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It is mainly composed of water, salts, and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes all of the material inside the cell and outside of the nucleus.

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Nucleus

a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.

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Nucleolus

The nucleolus is the nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells. The nucleolar organiser regions of chromosomes, which contain the genes for pre‐ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), serve as the foundation for nucleolar structure.

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Who is Virchow

First human to see cells devising under a microscope, he concluded that cells come from other cells

40

Who is Schleiden

Concluded that plants are made of cells