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Flashcards in Mood disorders, suicide & self-harm Deck (164):
1

What percentage of women experience recurrent depressive disorder?

20%

2

What percentage of men experience recurrent depressive disorder?

8%

3

What is the usual age of onset of recurrent depressive disorder?

late 20s

4

What is the F:M ratio for depression?

2:1

5

What % of the population has bipolar disorder at any one time?

1%

6

What is the average age of onset of bipolar disorder?

20

7

What is the male to female ratio for bipolar disorder?

Roughly the same

8

What % of the population have cyclothymia?

0.5-1%

9

Which age groups does cyclothymia usually begin in?

same as for bipolar, around the 20's

10

What is the incidence difference between M and F in cyclothymia?

No difference

11

What % of the population does dysthymia occur in?

3-6%

12

What is the average age of onset for dysthymia?

Childhood, adolescence or early adulthood

13

What is the F:M ratio for dysthymia?

2:1 / 3:1

14

What does the monoamine theory for depression suggest?

That depression is due to a shortage of noradrenaline, serotonin and possibly dopamine?

15

Other than monoamines what is likely involved in depression?

GABA and various other peptides (this has not yet been proven)

16

Is depression thought to have a genetic element?

Yes (a 1st degree relative is thought to be a significant factor)

17

What two traits can families have that increase the relapse of depression?

1) High expressed emotion 2) Highly critical

18

What psychiatric condition can increase the risk of depression?

Personality disorder

19

Name 4 vulnerability factors for depression.

1) 3 or more children at home under the age of 14

2) Not working outside the home

3) Lack of a confiding relationship

4) Loss of mother before the age of 11

20

With no treatment how long will a persons 1st depressive episode last?

8-9 months

21

What % of people will have another depressive episode?

80%

22

How many times higher is the risk of suicide in a depressed pt?

20x

23

How does the monoamine theory for depression apply to bipolar disorder?

Manic episodes are thought to be due to an increased central noradrenaline or serotonin level.

24

What is the concordance rate for bipolar disorder in monozygotic twins?

65-75%

25

What is the concordance rate for bipolar disorder in dizygotic twins?

14%

26

What % of pt will have another manic episode after their 1st one?

90%

27

What is the average number of manic episodes in 10 years for a bipolar pt?

4

28

What is the average length of a manic episode?

3 months

29

What is defined as rapid cycling dipolar disorder?

4 or more episodes in 1 year. It has a poor prognosis.

30

What % of bipolar pts have rapid cycling dipolar disorder?

5-15%

31

What % of bipolar pts successfully complete suicide?

10-15%

32

What is the nature of the course of cyclothymia and dysthymia?

Insidious onset and chronic course.

33

Which other psychiatric conditions is cyclothymia associated with?

Severe affective disorders, most likely bipolar affective disorder

34

Which other psychiatric conditions is dysthymia associated with?

1) Depression (double depression) 2) Anxiety disorders 3) Borderline personality disorders

35

What is the treatment for cyclothymia and dysthymia?

The same as for bipolar and depression

36

What medications should be used with caution in cyclothymia?

Antidepressants due to the risk of turning mild depressive symptoms into hypomania.

37

Define a feeling.

A short-lived emotional state

38

Define mood

A patients sustained, subjectively experienced state of emotion over a period of time.

39

Which three (core) symptoms are particularly important in depression?

1) Anhedonia --> A markedly reduced interest in almost all activities and a lack of ability to derive pleasure from these activities that were formerly enjoyed

2) Anergia --> Lack of energy or increased fatigability on minimal exertion leading to diminished activity

3) Low mood

40

How can depressive symptoms be divided when noting them down?

1) Cognitive

2) Biological

3) Psychotic and severe motor symptoms

4) Mood

41

What are the classic psychotic symptoms in depression?

Often mood congruent

1) Criticizing voices (2nd person auditory hallucination)

2) Smell rotting flesh (Olfactory hallucination)

42

Give an example of a motor symptom that occurs in depression.

Stupor (extreme unresponsiveness)

43

What is required for a diagnosis of depression?

4 symptoms including at least 1 core symptom

44

What are the "other" depressive symptoms?

Mood:

1) Diurnal variation

Biological:

2) Disturbed sleep

3) Diminished appetite

4) Loss of libido

Cognitive:

5) Reduced concentration

6) Reduced self-esteem

7) Ideas of guilt and unworthiness

8) Hopelessness

Dont forget:

9) Ideas or acts of self-harm or suicide

10) Delusions or hallucinations

11) Psychomotor abnormalities

45

What are the groups of physical conditions that can cause low mood?

1) Neurological 2) Endocrine 3) Infections 4) Drugs 5) Others

46

What are the neurological conditions that can cause low mood?

1) MS 2) Parkinson’s disease 3) Huntington’s disease 4) Stroke

47

What are the endocrine conditions that can cause low mood?

1) Cushing’s disease 2) Addison’s disease 3) Thyroid disorders 4) Parathyroid disorders 5) Menstrual cycle-related

48

What are the infectious conditions that can cause low mood?

1) Hepatitis 2) Infectious mononucleosis (aka glandular fever) 3) STI's

49

What are the drugs that can cause low mood?

1) Beta-blockers

2) steroids

3) Neurological drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, benzodiazepines

4) Analgesics: opiates, ibuprofen

5) Psychiatric: antipsychotics

50

Are men or women more likely to commit suicide?

Men

51

Are women or men more likely to self-harm?

Women

52

Which group have the highest rate of suicide?

Men 15-44

53

What is the leading cause of death in young adults?

Suicide

54

What are the leading methods of suicide in men and women respectively?

Hanging in men and poisoning in women.

55

What three things increase the national suicide rate?

1) springtime 2) economic depression 3) famous suicide (copycat suicide)

56

Is suicide more common in lower or higher social class?

Lower social class

57

What are the aspects of a suicide attempt that suggest a person actually wished to end their life?

1) The attempt was planned in advance

2) Precautions were taken to avoid discovery or rescue

3) A dangerous method was used e.g. firearms

4) No help was sought after the act

58

Describe the management of a suicide attempt.

1) Perform a MSE (ensure patient isnt drunk or drugged)

2) Perform a risk asessment

3) Decide if the pt needs to be admitted to psych hospital or released into the community with/without a CPN

59

What should you ask in a post-suicide risk assessment?

1) Current mood state – is there any regret or ongoing suicidal ideation. Features of hopelessness or worthlessness are associated with higher risk of suicide

2) Ascertain protective factors – anything to stop the patient doing it again i.e. not wanting to leave their kids alone

3) Check for an undiagnosed mental illness – especially depression, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence and personality disorders

4) Social support – what do they have available to them if discharged, do they have the ability to cope?

60

Most antidepressants have been shown to have similar efficacy, except one which is slightly better, which is?

Venlafaxine -> serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

61

What should you choose an antidepressant based on?

side-effect profile?

62

How long generally does it take for a response to anti-depressants (ADs) to show? (in 60-70% of pts)

4-6 weeks

63

After remission, how long should ADs be continued for?

6 months, before being tapered off.

64

Which conditions are TCAs used for?

1) Depression

2) Anxiety disorders

3) OCD

4) Chronic pain

5) Eating disorders

65

Which conditions are SSRIs used for?

1) Depression

2) Anxiety disorders

3) OCD

4) Bulimia nervosa

66

What is the general mechanism of action of ADs?

To increase neurotransmitters in the brain (this can be done through the dopamine, serotonin or noradrenaline pathway)

67

How do tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) work in depression?

Presynaptically blockade both noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake pumps (and dopamine to a lesser extent).

68

What causes TCAs significant side-effect profile?

Blockade muscarinic, alpha-adrenergic and histaminergic receptors

69

How do selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work?

Selective presynaptic blockade of serotonin re-uptake pumps.

70

Name the common TCAs.

ACID

amitriptyline

clomipramine

imipramine

dosulepin + doxepin

 

(others include: lofepramine + nortriptyline)

71

Name the common SSRIs.

citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine

72

Name the common SNRIs.

venlafaxine, duloxetine

73

How do serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) work?

Presynaptic blockade of both the noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake pumps (also dopamine if using high doses)

74

To what extent do SNRIs act on muscarinic, histaminergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors.

A negligible amount

75

How to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOAIs) work?

non-selective and irreversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase A and B.

76

Name an MOAI.

isocarboxazid

77

Name a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA).

mirtazapine

78

How do noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) work?

Presynaptic blockage of:

α2-adrenoceptor autoreceptors (I think it blocks all α2-adrenoceptors but to have its effect it is the autoreceptors that matter)

certian serotonin receptors

(results in increased noradrenaline and serotonin from presynaptic neurons)

79

Name a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI)

reboxetine

80

How do noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) work?

Selective presynaptic blockade of noradrenaline reuptake pumps

81

What side-effects of TCAs can be useful?

The sedative effects.

82

Why are TCAs dangerous in overdose?

as they are cardiotoxic

83

Which TCA is especially cardiotoxic?

amitriptyline

84

Name 3 contraindications for TCAs.

1) Recent MI

2) Arrhythmias

3) Severe liver disease

85

Describe the 4 groups of side-effects from TCAs. (I have included specific symptoms in the answer, however these make up a separate question)

1) Muscarinic (dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention and blurred vision)

2) Alpha-adrenergic (postural hypotension)

3) Histaminergic (weight gain, sedation)

4) Cardio toxic effects (QT interval prolongation, ST segment elevation, heart block, arrhythmias)

86

What is the minimum length of time a symptoms should be present for before it can be considered depression?

2 weeks

87

What is diagnosed when a patient has a mixture of manic and depressive symptoms at the same time (or in very short succession)?

Mixed affective disorder

88

Define mania.

An elevated or irritable mood where the patient may often feel ‘high’.

89

What categories can the symptoms of mania be split into?

Biological, cognitive and psychotic.

90

What are the biological symptoms of mania?

1) Decreased need for sleep 2) Increased energy

91

What are the cognitive symptoms of mania? (note some overlay into psychotic psychopathology)

1) Elevated self-esteem (can lead to grandiosity but would ∴ be a psychotic symptom)

2) Accelerated thinking

3) Poor concentration

4) Impaired judgement

5) Poor insight

92

What are the psychotic symptoms of mania?

1) Disorders of thought form

2) Perceptual disturbances (altered intensity of perceptions) such as hallucinations, pseudohallucination and illusions

3) Abnormal beliefs --> mainly 2ry delusions

93

Give 3 examples of disorders of thought form that occur in mania.

Circumstantiality, tangentiality, flight of ideas.

94

How long must symptoms be present for before mania can be diagnosed?

1 week

95

On what is the severity of mania decided in ICD-10?

The degree of psychosocial impairment.

96

Name 4 antimuscarinic side-effects of TCAs.

1) Dry mouth 2) Constipation 3) Urinary retention 4) Blurred vision

97

Name 4 categories of side-effects of TCAs.

1) muscarinic 2) alpha-adrenergic 3) histaminergic 4) cardio toxic effects

98

Name an alpha-adrenergic side effect (s/e)

Postural hypotension

99

Name two histaminergic s/e's of TCAs

1) Weight gain 2) Sedation

100

Name 4 cardiotoxic s/e's of TCAs

1) QT interval prolongation

2) ST segment elevation

3) Heart block

4) Arrhythmias

101

Generally how do the side effects of TCAs differ from SSRIs?

1) SSRIs have fewer anticholingergic (aka antimuscarinic) side effects than TCAs

2) SSRIs are less sedating than TCAs

3) SSRIs are less cardiotoxic

102

Which patient groups should SSRIs be used in?

1) Those with cardiac problems

2) Those at risk of overdose (both due to cardiotoxicity)

103

What mental state should SSRIs not be used in?

Mania

104

What are the side effects of SSRIs?

1) GI disturbance (early only): nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain

2) Anxiety and agitation (early only)

3) Sweating

4) Sexual dysfunction (anorgasmia, delayed ejaculation)

5) RElinquish of appetite and weight loss (occasionally weight gain)

6) Insomnia

105

What can a "Cheese" reaction lead to?

A life threatening hypertensive crisis.

106

What is an early sign of a "Cheese" reaction?

A headache

107

Why should one be careful of prescribing a MAOI when the patient is on another AD? (How can any complications be avoided)

As being on an MAOI and another AD can lead to a serotonin syndrome which can be potentially lethal. (Have a 2-3 week break of no AD between being on an MAOI and starting anther AD)

108

Chemically what is "serotonin syndrome"?

When medication (mainly AD) cause too much serotonin to be released in the CNS.

109

Other than ADs what can cause serotonin syndrome when combined with an MAOI?

Opiates

110

What are the side effects of MAOIs?

Similar to TCAs including postural hypotension and anticholinergic effects.

111

What is a discontinuation syndrome?

When you stop ADs quickly it leads to s/e. (Note: this is not a dependance syndrome or addiction)

112

What side effects occur with a discontinuation syndrome?

FINISH:

Flu-like symptoms

Insomnia

Nausea

Imbalance

Sensory disturbances

Hyperarousal (anxiety/agitation)

113

Which medications are particularly likely to cause a discontinuation syndrome?

SSRIs with short half lives (e.g. paroxetine) and venlafaxine (SNRI) are particular culprits

114

How can discontinuation syndrome be avoided?

Gradually tapering down ADs before stopping.

115

What are the common mood stabilisers?

1) Lithium 2) Valproate (anticonvulsant) 3) Carbamazepine (anticonvulsant) (There are some other anticonvulsants being investigated for mood stabilisation properties)

116

How do mood stabilisers work?

It is not actually known

117

What is the theory of how lithium works?

It modulates the neurotransmitter induced activation of second messenger systems

118

What are the theorys of how valproate and carbamazepine work respectively?

1) carbamazepine is a GABA receptor agonist

 

2) valporate inhibits GABA transaminase

119

What are the main indications for lithium?

1) acute mania

2) prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder

3) treatment resistant depression (lithium augmentation)

120

What are the main indications for valproate?

1) epilepsy

2) acute mania

3) prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder

121

What are the main indications for carbamazepine?

1) epilepsy 2) prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder (if unresponsive to lithium) 3) rapid cycling bipolar disorder

122

What is the therapeutic range for lithium?

0.5-1.2mmol/L

123

Via which route is lithium excreted?

Via the kidneys

124

What causes a decrease in lithium excretion?

1) Renal insufficiency

2) Sodium depletion

3) Diuretics

4) NSAIDs

5) ACEIs

125

What is the effect of taking APs with lithium?

Increases lithium neurotoxicity

126

What is the effect of lithium on the thyroid?

It leads to hypothyroidism and goitre

127

What tests should be done before starting lithium?

1) FBC (can cause leukocytosis)

2) eGFR/U+E's (as its renally excreted + can be renotoxic)

3) TFT (as thyrotoxic)

4) ECG (as somewhat cardiotoxic)

5) Pregancy test (as teratogenic)

128

Describe the monitoring of lithium.

Kidney + thyroid function 6 monthly

Blood levels:

1) Monitor weekly until stable (for 4 weeks)

2) 3 monthly for the following year

3) Then 6 monthly monitoring

129

What are the contraindications to lithium?

1) pregnancy

2) renal insufficiency

3) thyroid disease

4) cardiac conditions

5) neurological conditions (e.g. Parkinson’s or Huntington’s)

130

What tests should be done before starting Carbamazepine and Sodium Valporate?

1) LFTs

2) Haematological function prior and soon after starting these drugs (i.e. FBC, blood film, etc)

(due to the risk of serious blood and hepatic disorders)

131

When should ECT be used for depression?

Its not 1st line. Used when there is:

 

Severe depression:

1) life-threatening poor fluid intake

2) strong suicidal intent

3) psychotic features or stupor

OR

4) antidepressants are ineffective or not tolerated

OR

5) A mother who has just given birth to reunite with baby

132

When is ECT used in mania? (what is the paradoxical nature of this)

Used in established mania. (but can precipitate a manic episode in bipolar disorder)

133

What can ECT be used in?

1) Depression

2) Established mania

3) Schizophrenia

4) Puerperal psychosis (new mothers) to rapidly reunite her with her baby

134

What specific types of schizophrenia is ECT generally used in?

1) catatonic states

2) positive psychotic symptoms

3) schizoaffective disorder

135

What is the general course for ECT?

2-3 times per week and most patients need 4-12 treatments

136

Explain the procedural process of ECT.

1) An anaesthetist gives a short acting inducing agent and muscle relaxant that ensures about 5 minutes of general anaesthesia.

2) Electrodes are then placed bilaterally or unilaterally on the patients head and an electric current of sufficient charge is delivered to affect a generalized seizure lasting for 15 seconds or greater in duration.

137

Explain how ECT works.

It is not clear how ECT works. It causes a release of neurotransmitters in the brain as well as hypothalamic and pituitary hormones whilst also affecting neurotransmitter receptors and second-messenger systems thereby resulting in a transient increase in blood-brain barrier permeability.

138

What are the potential s/e's of ECT?

1) Loss of memory (particularly for events surrounding the ECT process).

2) Impairment of autobiographical memory.

3) Minor complains such as nausea, confusion, headache and muscle pains in 80% of pts.

(4) In patients on antidepressants and antipsychotics a prolonged seizure may occur due to a lowered seizure threshold.)

139

How can memory loss be reduced in ECT?

Using unilateral ECT.

140

What are the contraindications for ECT?

There are none (e.g. as it may prevent suicide in depressed pts) Relative contraindications include:

1) Heart disease

2) Raised intracranial pressure

3) Risk of cerebral bleeding

4) Poor anaesthetic risk

141

What are the mood disorders?

Disorders affecting the mood: 1) depression 2) mania (bipolar) 3) cyclothymia 4) dysthymia 5) hypomania

142

What are the main psychological interventions in mood disorder?

1) counselling and supportive psychotherapy

2) psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychotherapy

3) cognitive behavioural therapy

143

Briefly describe supportive psychotherapy.

Emphasis relies on the client using their own strength with the therapist being reflective and empathetic.

Generally brief and for minor mental health issues. (least complex type of psychological intervention)

It is NOT time limited.

144

Briefly describe psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

Essentially past-issues have led to the pts psychiatric disorder but they are unable to identify these past-issues due to defence mechanisms of their mind. The mind prevent the person recalling these issues as it causes anxiety when thought of by the patient. The issues are uncovered using:

1) Transference --> patient inappropriately transfers feelings or attitudes experienced in an earlier significant relationship onto the therapist.

2) Counter-transference --> therapist transfers feelings from the course of the therapy onto patient. The therapist can use these feelings to empathise with the patient.

 

Psychodynamic --> Therapist and patient are face to face. Once per week for 50 mins and can last longer than 6 months and is not time limited.

Psychoanalytic --> patient is on a couch with therapist out of view behind and the sessions are not time limited. It also can last longer than 6 months and is not time limited.

145

Briefly describe cognitive behavioural therapy.

Person has automatic negative thoughts (e.g. I am going to fail) which then produce dysfunctional assumptions (e.g. If i dont pass im completely useless), pt and therapist then test these assumptions using behavioural experiments. CBT main points:

1) CBT is time-limited (12 - 25 sessions)

2) goal-orientated (i.e. does look back at pts past)

3) pt + therapist jointly decide agenda of sessions

4) involves homework

146

Other than the three main types of psychological intervention name 4 other types.

1) Interpersonal therapy (IPT) – evaluating social interactions and skills

2) Group therapy – shows pt their not alone + supportive enviroment

3) Family therapy – focuses on improving communication and reducing conflict

4) Therapeutic communities – cohesive residential units that consist of about 30 patients for 9-18 months. The residents are encourage to take responsibility for themselves during this time and are particularly useful for personality disorders.

147

What are the main types of psychological intervention in depression?

1) CBT

2) psychodynamic therapy

Also:

3) IPT

4) group therapy

148

What are the main types of psychological intervention in Anxiety disorder, OCD and PTSD?

1) CBT

2) psychodynamic therapy

Also:

3) Systematic desensitization

4) hypnotherapy

149

What are the main types of psychological intervention in schizophrenia?

1) CBT

Also:

2) Family therapy

150

What are the main types of psychological intervention in eating disorder?

1) CBT

Also:

2) Family therapy

3) IPT

151

What are the main types of psychological intervention in borderline personality disorder?

1) Psychodynamic therapy

Also:

2) Therapeutic communities

152

What are the main types of psychological intervention in alcohol dependence?

1) CBT

Also:

2) Group therapy

153

What neurotransmitters does MAO-A degrade?

NA, adrenaline, serotonin and dopamine

154

What neurotransmitters does MAO-B degrade?

Dopamine

(Also: benzylamine and phenylethylamine)

155

Name some common antimuscarinic symptoms.

  1. Blurred vision
  2. Dry mouth
  3. Constipation
  4. Urinary retention

156

Name a common α-adrenergic side-effect due to TCAs.

Postural hypotension

157

Name some common histaminergic side-effects due to TCAs.

  1. Weight gain
  2. Sedation

158

What are the cardiotoxic side-effects that TCAs can cause?

  1. QT interval prolongation
  2. ST segment elevation
  3. Heart block
  4. Arrhythmias

159

What are the abnormal beliefs that occur in mania?

2ry delusions

160

What pathology can pushed a diagnosis of hypomania to being full blown mania?

Psychotic psychopathology specifically

delusions

and

hallucinations.

161

What are the mood symptoms of depression?

Mood:

1) Diurnal variation

162

What are the biological symptoms of depression?

Biological:

1) Disturbed sleep

2) Diminished appetite

3) Loss of libido

163

What are the cognitive symptoms of depression?

Cognitive:

6) Reduced concentration

7) Reduced self-esteem

8) Ideas of guilt and unworthiness

9) Hopelessness

164

What are the 'Don't forget' symptoms of depression?

Ideas or acts of self-harm or suicide

Delusions or hallucinations

psychomotor abnormalities