morphology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in morphology Deck (46):
1

affix

Bound morpheme that attaches to a stem.

2

affixation

Process of forming words by adding affixes to morphemes.

3

agglutinating language

A type of synthetic language in which the relationships between words in a sentence are indicating primarily by bound morphemes. (Bound morphemes are joined together loosely so that it is easy to determine where the boundaries between morphemes are).

4

allomorph

One of a set of nondistinctive realizations of a particular morpheme that have the same function and are phonetically similar.

5

alternation

The morphological process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words or morphological distinctions.

6

ambiguity

The phenomenon by which a single linguistic form (a word or a string of words) can be the form of more than one distinct linguistic expression. The form that is shared by more than one expression is said to be ambiguous.

7

analytic language

Type of language in which most words consist of one morpheme and sentences are composed of sequences of these free morphemes. Grammatical relationships are often indicated by word order. Ex (Chinese & Vietnamese).

8

bound morpheme

Morpheme that always attaches to other morphemes, never existing as a word itself.

9

bound root

Morpheme that has some associated basic meaning, but that is unable to stand alone as a word in its own right.

10

closed lexical category

Lexical category in which the members are fairly rigidly established and additions are made very rarely and only over long periods of time.

11

compounding

Word formation process by which words are formed through combining two or more independent words.

12

conjunction

A lexical category that consists of function words such as and, but, however, and so on.

13

content morpheme

Morpheme that carries semantic content as opposed to merely performing a grammatical function.

14

content word

A word whose primary purpose is to contribute semantic content to the phrase in which it occurs. All free content morphemes are content words.

15

derivation

A morphological process that changes a word's lexical category or its meaning in some predictable way.

16

determiner

The name of a lexical category and a syntactic category that consists of expressions such as the, a, this, all, etc. Syntactically, consists of those expressions that when combined with an expression of category noun to their right result in an expression of category noun phrase.

17

form

The structure or shape of any particular linguistic item, from individual segments to stings of words.

18

free morpheme

A morpheme that can stand alone as a word.

19

function morpheme

Morpheme that provides information about the grammatical relationships between words in a sentence.

20

function word

A word that has little semantic content and whose primary purpose is to indicate grammatical relationships between other words within a phrase.

21

fusional language

A type of synthetic language in which the relationships between the words in a sentence are indicated by bound morphemes that are difficult to separate from the stem.

22

hierarchical structure

The dominance relationship among morphemes in a word, or among constituents in a phrase.

23

homophony

The phenomenon by which two or more distinct morphemes or nonphrasal linguistic expressions happen to have the same form. (ex. sound the same).

24

incorporation

Morphological process by which several distinct semantic components are combined into a single word in a polysynthetic language.

25

infix

A type of bound morpheme that is inserted into the middle of the stem.

26

inflection

A morphological process whereby the form of a word is modified to indicate some grammatically relevant information, such as person, number, tense, gender, etc.

27

input

The linguistic form before the application of a rule or a set of rules.

28

lexical category

Class of words grouped together based on morphological properties. Traditionally known as part of speech.

29

lexicon

A mental repository of linguistic information about words and other lexical expressions, including their form and meaning and their morphological and syntactic properties. As a part of descriptive, not mental, grammar, the lexicon is the representation of the mental lexicon, consisting of lexical entries that capture the relevant properties of lexical expressions.

30

morpheme

Smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function.

31

morphology

The study of how words are constructed out of morphemes.

32

open lexical category

Lexical category into which new members are often introduced.

33

output

The linguistic form obtained after an application of a rule or a set of rules.

34

partial reduplication

Morphological reduplication in which only part of a morpheme is reduplicated.

35

polysynthetic language

A type of language that attaches several affixes to a stem to indicate grammatical relationships.

36

prefix

Affix that attaches to the beginning of a stem.

37

preposition

The name of a lexical category and a syntactic category that consists of expressions such as at in, for, with, etc.

38

productive

Describes a morpheme or rule that can be used to produce novel grammatical forms.

39

pronoun

The name of a lexical category that consists of words such as I, she, us, etc. Syntactically, pronouns belong to the category noun phrase.

40

reduplicant

The morpheme or part of a morpheme that is repeated in reduplication.

41

reduplication

Process of forming new words by doubling either an entire word (total reduplication) or part of a word (partial reduplication).

42

root

The free morpheme or bound root in a word that contributes most semantic content to the word, and to which affixes can attach.

43

simultaneous affix

An affix that is articulated at the same time as some other affix or affixes in a word's stem; exists only in visual-gestural languages.

44

stem

The base, consisting of one or more morphemes, to which some affix is added. (always includes root and may also include one or more affixes).

45

suffix

Affix that attaches to the end of a stem.

46

suppletion

A morphological process between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other.