MORS 113: Muscle Facts (Little Blue Book) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MORS 113: Muscle Facts (Little Blue Book) Deck (51):
1

Refers to the study of the muscular system.

Myology

2

  • Make up about 45% of body weight.
  • Responsible for imparting movement to body parts.
    • Do this through the ability to contract (shorten in length).

Muscles

3

The ability to contract and cause movement.

Contractility

4

Have the ability to convert chemical energy derived from digested food products into mechanical energy, which in turn creates the contractions and movement associated with muscles.

Muscle Cells

5

May only be 1/2 to 1/3 it's normal length when at rest.

A Fully Contracted Muscle

6

Specialized nerve cells (neurons) that transmit stimuli to muscle cells.

  • Muscles do not contract on their own, they need these.

Motor Neurons

7

The combination of a motor neuron and the group of muscle cells which it stimulates.

Motor Unit

8

Generally, muscles do not act individually to create movement of a body part, but function:

In Coordination With Other Muscles

9

There is often one muscle which is largely responsible for a desired action, and it is referred to as this.

Prime Mover (Agonist)

10

Has the opposite effect of the prime mover.

Antagonist

11

In addition to creating movement, muscles also enable to body to:

Maintain Its Posture

12

Partial muscular contraction that does not create movement, but simply allows for a relatively constant amount of tension in a muscle so that it can hold a body part in its proper position.

Tonic Contraction

13

Besides creating movement and maintaing posture, muscles are also responsible for:

Heat Production in The Body

14

  1. Skeletal
  2. Smooth
  3. Cardiac

Three Basic Categories of Muscle Tissue

15

Makes up the greatest share of the muscular tissue in the human body.

  • Attaches to the bones of the skeleton and creates movement by pulling these bones.

Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary, Striated)

16

Skeletal muscle is also known as this because it can be made to contract by conscious control.

Voluntary

17

Skeletal muscle is also called this because under a microscope, this type of muscle is seen to contain dark colored stripes.

Striated

18

Found in various organs and functions "automatically."

  • Microscopically, does not have stripes (striations)
  • Found in most of the viscera - such as the stomach and intestines.

Smooth Muscle (Involuntary, Visceral, Non-Striated)

19

The kind of muscle found in the heart.

  • Has some of the characteristics found in the other two kinds of muscles.
    • Is striated and involuntary
  • Forms branches, is functionally arranged differently so that it can keep the heart beating in a rythmic fashion.

Cardiac Muscle

20

Small, dense cords of connective tissue that are responsible for attaching muscle to bone (or muscles to muscles in some cases).

  • Often cross over an articulation in order to pull on the bones forming the joint, thus bringing them toward each other.

Tendons

21

Have three main parts:

  • Origin
  • Insertion
  • Body

Voluntary (Skeletal) Muscle

22

The end of the muscle which is attached to the less moveable, or "fixed" bone.

Origin

23

The end of the muscle which is attached to the more movable bone.

Insertion

24

The fleshy portion of the muscle.

Body (Belly)

25

The origin of the muscle is normally the ____ end.

Proximal

26

The insertion of a muscle is usually the ______ end.

Distal

27

Long, cylindrical cells that are made up of tiny, thread-like structures, which in turn consist of ven finer filaments made up on specialized proteins.

Muscle Fibers

28

The tiny, thread-like stuctures within a muscle fiber.

Myofibrils

29

  • Tonic
  • Twitch
  • Tetanic
  • Isotonic
  • Isometric

Forms of Muscle Contraction

30

Rapid, jerky contractions in response to a stimulus, which play no major role in normal bodily activities.

Twitch Contractions

31

More sustained contractions, where muscle fibers are unable to relax between stimuli occurring at a more rapid rate.

Tetanic Muscle Contractions

32

Resulting from tetanic contractions, the state of contraction. May vary in intensity and is not necessarily an efficient, maximized contraction of all the fibers in a particular muscle.

Tetanus

33

Those contractions in which we normally think of when muscles undergo their normal movement, where a more constant, equal contraction is involved.

  • The muscle shortens and pulls on another body part, such as bone, in order to create movement.

Isotonic Contraction

34

Involve a constant tension put upon a muscle, but little or no movement occurs. Although tension increases within the muscle, the muscle does not shorten and result in movement of a body part.

Isometric Contraction

35

Usually reflect something important about the muscle, such as:

  • Location
  • Action
  • Shape
  • Direction of the muscle fibers
  • Size
  • Number of divisions
  • Points of attachment
  • Superficial or deep

Names of Skeletal Muscles

36

Moving a body part, such as a limb, away from the median plane of the body.

  • Example: moving your arm out to the side

Abduction

37

Moving a body part toward the median plane.

  • Example: Moving your arm from away from the body back down to your side.

 

Adduction

38

Bending a body part, or decreasing the angle between two bones.

Flexion

39

Straightening out a body part, or increasing the angle betwen bones.

Extension

40

Movement of the palm of the hand from a forward or upward facing position to a backward or downward facing position.

  • The distal end of the radius crosses over the ulna

 

Pronation

41

Movement of the palm of the hand from a backward or downward facing position to a forward or upward position.

  • The radius and ulna are parallel

Supination

42

Lifting up of a body part.

Elevation

43

Downward movement, or lowering, of a body part.

Depression

44

Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis.

Rotation

45

Turning, or swinging, a body part, such as a limb, in a circular fashion. This movement is actually a combination of other actions.

Circumduction

46

The squeezing closed of a body orifice.

Constriction

47

Refers to a widening or opening of an orifice.

Dilation

48

Refers to a forward movement of a body part.

Protraction

49

Refers to a backward movement of a part.

Retraction

50

Used to describe an outward turning of the sole of the foot.

Eversion

51

Means an inward turning of the sole of the foot.

Inversion

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