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Flashcards in Most Common Drugs: Indications Deck (140):
1

Acetaminophen

Action: inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in the transmission of pain signals and fever response

Use: mild pain, fever

2

Acyclovir

Action: interferes with viral DNA synthesis

Use: genital herpes, herpes zoster, chicken pox

3

Albuterol

Action: binds to Beta2 adrenergic receptors in the airway leading to relaxation of the smooth muscles in the airway

Use: bronchodilator used to prevent airway obstruction in asthma and COPD

4

Alendronate

Action: inhibits osteoclast activity leading to inhibition of resorption of bone

Use: osteoporosis

5

Alprazolam

Action: works in CNS to produce anxiolytic effect causing CNS depression

Use: anxiety, panic disorder, management of PMS, insomnia, mania, psychosis

6

Alteplase

Action: degrades clots

Use: MI, acute ischemic stroke, occluded central lines

7

Amiodarone

Action: prolongs phase 3 of the action potential, makes the heart more tolerant to arrythmias, inhibits adrenergic stimulation, slows rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance causing vasodilation

Use: a-fib, ventricular arrhythmias, SVT, ACLS protocol for v-fib and v-tach

8

Amitryptilline

Action: increase effects of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS, exhibits anticholinergic effects

Use: depression, anxiety, insomnia, parkinsons

9

Amlodipine

Action: blocks transport of calcium into muscle cells inhibiting excitation and contraction

Use: hypertension, angina

10

Amoxicillin

Action: inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall leading to cell death

Use: skin infection, respiratory infection, sinusitis, endocarditis prophylaxis, lyme disease

11

Ampicillin

Action: bactericidal, broader spectrum than penicillin, binds to cell wall leading to bacterial cell death

Use: skin infections, soft tissue infections, otitis media, sinusitis, respiratory infections, GU infections, meningitis, septicemia

12

Aspirin

Action: inhibits the production of prostaglandins which reduces fever, inflammation, and platelet aggregation

Use: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ischemic stroke and MI prophylaxis

13

Atenolol

Action: blocks the stimulation of beta1 receptors in the somatic nervous system with minimal effect on beta2 receptors

Use: hypertension, angina, prevention of MI

14

Atorvastatin

Action: lowers total cholesterol including LDL while slightly increasing HDL

Use: management of high cholesterol, primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

15

Atropine

Action: anticholinergic which inhibits the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system, specifically acetylcholine. This causes an increase in HR, bronchodilation, decreased GI and respiratory secretions

Use: decreases oral and respiratory secretions, treat sinus bradycardia and heart block, treatment of bronchospasm

16

Azithromycin

Action: inhibits bacterial protein synthesis

Use: URI, chronic bronchitis, lower respiratory infections, otitis media, skin infections, various STIs, prevention of bacterial endocarditis, treatment of cystic fibrosis

17

Benzotropine

Action: exhibits anticholinergic action in the CNS to reduce rigidity and tremors

Use: treatment of Parkinson's disease

18

Bisacodyl

Action: stimulated enteric nerves to cause peristalsis which leads to fluid accumulation in the colon

Use:treatment of constipation, bowel regimen

19

Bismuth Subsalicylate

Action: stimulates the absorption of fluids and electrolytes in the intestinal wall, reduction in hypermotility of the stomach, binds to toxins

Use: diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, H. pylori associated ulcer

20

Bupropion

Action: not well understood, increases dopamenergic and noradrenergic transmission via reuptake

Use: depression, smoking cessation, ADHD in adults

21

Buspirone

Action: relieves anxiety by binding to dopamine and serotonin receptors

Use: management of anxiety

22

Butorphanol

Action: alters perception and response to pain by binding to opiate receptors in CNS

Use: moderate to severe pain, labor pain, sedation

23

Calcium Acetate

Action: essential for nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems; helps maintain cell membranes, aids in transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction, aids in blood formation and coagulation

Use: treatment of hypocalcemia, prevention of post menopausal osteoporosis, treatment of hyperkalemia and hypermagnesaemia, adjunt in cardiac arrest, control of hyperphosphatemia with ESRD. Binds to phosphate in food and prevents absorption

24

Calcium Carbonate

Action: essential for nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems; helps maintain cell membranes, aids in transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction, aids in blood formation and coagulation

Use: treatment of hypocalemia, prevention of post menopausal ostoporosis, treatment of hyperkalemia and hypermagnesaemia, used as antacid

25

Captopril

Action: block conversion of angiotension I to angiotension II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone leading to vasodilation

Use: hypertension, management of CHF, decrease progression of diabetic neuropathy

26

Carbamazepine

Action: affects Na channels in neurons leading to decreased synaptic transmission

Use: seizures, diabetic neuropathy, pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia

27

Carbidopa/Levodopa

Action: levodopa is converted to dopamine and works as a neurotransmitter, carbidopa prevents the destruction of levodopa allowing it to cross the blood brain barrier

Use: Parkinson's disease

28

Cefaclor

Action: bacteriacidal, binds to bacterial cell wall causing cell death

Use: treatment of respiratory tract infections, skin infections, otitis media

29

Cefdinir

Action: bactericidal, binds to bacterial cell wall causing cell death

Use: treatment of skin infections, otitis media

30

Celecoxib

Action: decreases pain and inflammation by inhibiting synthesis of prostaglandins, inhibits COX2

Use: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain

31

Cephalexin

Action: bactericidal, binds bacterial cell wall leading to cell death

Use: skin infections, pneumonia, UTI, otitis media

32

Chlorpromazine

Action: anticholinergic activity, alters effects of dopamine in CNS

Use: second line treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis, nausea/vomiting, pre-op sedation, acute intermittent porphyria, headache, bipolar

33

Ciprofloxacin

Action: inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis

Use: UTI, STI, URI, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin and bone infections, infectious diarrhea, abdominal infection

34

Clindamycin

Action: bacteriostatic, inhibits protein synthesis

Use: skin infection, respiratory infection, septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, osteomyelitis

35

Clopidogrel

Action: inhibits platelet aggregation

Use: atherosclerotic events, MI, CVA, PVD, acute coronary syndrome

36

Codeine

Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS, also causes a decrease in the cough reflex and GI motility

Use: management of pain, diarrhea, cough suppressant

37

Cortisone

Action: mimics cortisol excreted by adrenal glands which plays a role in increasing blood sugar, immune suppression, metabolism, decreasing bone formation

Use: management of adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease), replace cortisol in states of deficiency, suppress inflammation and normal immune response

38

Cyclosporine

Action: inhibits normal immune response primarily by decreasing the activity of T cells

Use: prevent rejection of transplant, treatment of severe RA, management of ulcerative colitis

39

Dexamethazone

Action: suppress inflammation and normal immune response

Use: manage cerebral edema, assess for Cushing's disease

40

Diazepam

Action: decreases the effects of voltage gated sodium channels to depress the CNS

Use: anxiety, pre-op sedation, conscious sedation, treatment of seizures, insomnia, management of alcohol withdrawal

41

Digoxin

Action: positive inotropic effect (increases force of myocardial contraction), prolongs refractory period, decrease conduction through SA and AV nodes; increases cardiac output and lowers heart rate

Use: CHF, A-fib, A-flutter

42

Diltiazem

Action: inhibits calcium transport resulting in inhibition of excitation and contraction, leads to depression of AV and SA node leading to decreased HR, leads to vasodilation and decreased blood pressure

Use: hypertension, angina, SVT, a-fib, a-flutter

43

Diphenhydramine

Action: antagonizes effects of histamine, CNS depression

Use: allergy, anaphylaxis, sedation, motion sickness, antitussive

44

Diphenoxylate/Atropine

Action: inhibits GI motility via anticholinergic effects

Use: treatment of diarrhea

45

Divalproex

Action: valproic acid derivative, increases the level of GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter) in CNS

Use: seizures, manic episodes, prevention of headache

46

Dobutamine

Action: positive inotropic effect (increases cardiac output) with very little effect on heart rate; stimulates Beta1 receptors in the heart

Use: short term management of heart failure

47

Dopamine

Action: small doses result in renal vasodilation, moderate doses result in cardiac stimulation by acting on Beta1 receptors, large doses result in stimulating alpha receptors leading to vasoconstriction

Use: improve blood pressure, cardiac outpus, urine output

48

Enalapril

Action: block conversion of angiotension I to angiotension II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone leading to vasodilation

Use: hypertension, management of CHF

49

Enoxaparin

Action: prevents thrombus formation by potentiating the inhibitory effect of antithrombin on factor Xa and thrombin; low molecular weight heparin

Use: prevention of VTE, DVT, and PE

50

Epinephrine

Action: impacts both Beta1 and Beta2, also has Alpha agonist properties resulting in bronchodilation and increases in HR and BP; inhibits hypersensitivity reaction

Use: asthma and COPD exacerbation, allergic reactions, cardiac arrest, anesthesia adjunct

51

Epoetin

Action: stimulates erythropoesis (production of RBCs)

Use: anemia

52

Erythromycin

Action: bacteriostatic, suppresses bacterial protein synthesis

Use: used in place of penicillin in penicillin hypersensitivity, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, ski infections, pertussis, syphilis, rheumatic fever

53

Escitalopram

Action: increases the extracellular levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft by selectively inhibiting its reuptake

Use: major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, OCD, PTSD, social phobia

54

Famotidine

Action: blocks action of histamine located in gastric parietal cells, inhibits gastric acid secretion

Use: short term treatment of active ulcer, GERD, treatment of heartburn, indigestion, management of Zollinger Ellison syndrome, prevention of GI bleeding in critically ill patients, management of symptoms associated with overuse of NSAIDs

55

Fentanyl

Action: binds to opiate receptors in CNS altering perception of pain, producing CNS depression

Use: supplement to general anesthesia, continuous IV infusion for purpose of analgesia

56

Ferrous Sulfate

Action: essential for hemoglobin, myoglobin, and enzymes; transported to organs where it becomes part of iron stores

Use: prevention and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia

57

Fluoxetine

Action: inhibits reuptake of serotonin allowing it to persist longer in synaptic cleft

Use: depressive disorder, OCD, bulimeia, panic disorder, bipolar, anorexia, ADHD, diabetic neuropathy, obesity

58

Fluticasone

Action: locally acting anti-inflammatory

Use: prophylactic asthma treatment

59

Furosemide

Action: prevents reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys; increases excretion of water, sodium, chloride, magnesium, potassium

Use: edema, hypertension

60

Gabapentin

Action: exact method of action unknown, may play a role in stabilizing neural membranes

Use: seizures, peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, prevention of migraines

61

Gentamicin

Action: inhibits bacterial protein synthesis

Use: treatment of gram negative infections when penicillin is ineffective

62

Glipizide

Action: stimulates release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas and leads to increased sensitivity to insulin

Use: Type 2 diabetes mellitus

63

Glucagon

Action: stimulates production of glucose from stores, relaxes GI tract

Use: severe hypoglycemia, antidote for beta blockers and calcium channel blockers

64

Guaifenesin

Action: decreases viscosity and mobilizes secretions

Use: cough suppression, expectorant

65

Haloperidol

Action: alters the effect of dopamine

Use: schizophrenia, mania, aggressive and agitated patients

66

Heparin

Action: increases the inhibitory effect of antithrombin on factor Xa

Use: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment, low dose used to ensure patency of IV catheters

67

Hydralazine

Action: arterial vasodilation by unclarified mechanism

Use: hypertension

68

Hydrochlorothiazide

Action: increases sodium and water excretion and produces arterial vasodilation

Use: hypertension, CHF, renal dysfunction, cirrhosis, glucocorticoid therapy

69

Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen

Action: alters the perception and reaction to pain by binding to opiate receptors in the CNS, also suppresses the cough reflex

Use: management of moderate to severe pain

70

Hydromorphone

Action: alters the perception and reaction to pain by binding to opiate receptors in the CNS, also suppresses the cough reflex

Use: moderate to severe pain

71

Ibuprofen

Action: decreases pain and inflammation by inhibiting prostaglandins

Use: mild to moderate pain, inflammatory states

72

Indomethacin

Action: decreases pain and inflammation by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis

Use: inflammatory disorder when patients do not respond to other medications, patent ductus arteriosus

73

Insulin: Intermediate acting

Action: stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Use: hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2

74

Insulin: long acting

Action: stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Use: hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2

75

Insulin: Mixtures

Action: stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Use: hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2

76

Insulin: rapid acting

Action: stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Use: hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2

77

Insulin: short acting

Action: stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Use: hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2, diabetic ketoacidosis

78

Iodine (radioactive)

Action: inhibits the release of thyroid hormones

Use: thyroidectomy pretreatment, thyrotoxic crisis, radiation exposure

79

Isoniazide

Action: inhibits synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall

Use: tuberculosis

80

Ketorolac

Action: pain relief due to prostaglandin inhibition by blocking the enzyme COX1/2

Use: mild to moderate pain

81

Lactulose

Action: draws water into the stool and softens stool, inhibits ammonia passing into the colon

Use: constipation, hepatic encephalopathy

82

Lamotrigine

Action: inhibits sodium transport in neurons

Use: seizures related to epilepsy, bipolar

83

Levetiracetam

Action: decreases severity and incidences of seizures by inhibiting presynaptic calcium channels and reducing neurotransmitter release

Use: seizures

84

Levofloxacin

Action: inhibits DNA synthesis in bacteria

Use: urinary tract infection, gonorrhea, respiratory tract infections, bronchitits, pneumonia, skin and bone infections

85

Levothyroxine

Action: replaces thyroid hormone, increasing metabolism, promotes gluconeogenesis, stimulates protein synthesis, restores normal hormone balance and suppresses thyroid cancer

Use: thyroid hormone replacement in hypothyroidism

86

Lisinopril

Action: blocks conversion of angiotension I to angiotensin II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone leading to vasodilation

Use: hypertension, management of CHF

87

Lithium

Action: alters cation transport and neurotransmitter reuptake

Use: mania, bipolar disorder

88

Loperamide

Action: inhibits peristalsis, reduces the volume of feces while increasing the bulk and viscosity

Use: acute diarrhea, decrease drainage post ileostomy

89

Lorazepam

Action: general CNS depression by potentiating inhibitory neurotransmitters

Use: anxiety, sedation, seizures

90

Losartan

Action: inhibits vasoconstrictive properties of angiotensin II

Use: hypertension, diabetic neuropathy, CHF

91

Magnesium Sulfate

Action: plays a role in muscle excitability

Use: treatment of hypomagnesaemia, hypertension, preterm labor, torsade de pointes, asthma, anticonvulsant with eclampsia

92

Mannitol

Action: inhibits reabsorption of water and electrolytes by increasing osmotic pressure, excreted by kidneys

Use: increased ICP, oliguric renal failure, edema, intraocular pressure

93

Meperidine

Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS

Use: moderate to severe pain, sedation

94

Metformin

Action: decreases glucose production in the liver, decreases absorption, increases cellular insulin sensitivity

Use: management of DMII, PCOS

95

Methadone

Action: suppresses withdrawal symptoms, binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of CNS, causes a decrease in cough reflex and GI motility

Use: opioid withdrawal, pain

96

Methylergonovine

Action: stimulates uterine muscles causing uterine contraction

Use: treatment of post-partum hemorrhage

97

Methylphenidate

Action: improves attention span in ADHD by producing CNS stimulation

Use: ADHD, narcolepsy

98

Methylprednisone

Action: suppresses inflammation and normal immune response

Use: inflammation, allergy, autoimmune disorders, prevent organ rejection

99

Metoclopramide

Action: accelerates gastric emptying by stimulating motility

Use: prevention of nausea, vomiting, hiccups, migraines, gastric stasis

100

Metoprolol

Action: blocks the stimulation of Beta1 receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, does not usually impact Beta2 receptors (cardioselective)

Use: tachyarrhythmias, HTN, angina, prevention of MI, heart failure management, may be used for migraine prophylaxis

101

Metronidazole

Action: inhibits DNA and protein synthesis in bacteria, bactericidal

Use: intra-abdominal infections, gynecological infections, skin infections, bone and joint infections, CNS infections, septicemia, endocarditis, amebic liver abscess, peptic ulcer disease

102

Midazolam

Action: acts to produce CNS depression, may be mediated by GABA

Use: sedation, conscious sedation, anesthesia, status epilepticus

103

Montelukast

Action: disrupts the effects of leukotrienes which efect airway edema, smooth muscle constriction, cellular activity

Use: prevent or treat asthma, manage seasonal allergies, prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

104

Morphine

Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS

Use: pain, pulmonary edema, MI

105

Nalbuphine

Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS

Use: pain, analgesia during labor, sedation before surgery, supplement to balance anesthesia

106

Naproxen

Action: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, nonopioid analgesics, antipyretic; inhibits prostaglandin synthesis

Use: pain, dysmenorrhea, fever, inflammation

107

Nifedipine

Action: blocks calcium transport resulting inhibition of contraction causing systemic vasodilation

Use: hypertension, angina, migraines, CHF

108

Nitroprusside

Action: peripheral vasodilation of arteries and veins decreasing preload and afterload

Use: hypertensive crisis, cardiogenic shock

109

Norepinephrine

Action: increase blood pressure and cardiac output by stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors in the blood vessels, demonstrates minor beta activity

Use: treatment of severe hypotension and shock

110

Nystatin

Action: causes leakage of fungal cell contents

Use: candidiasis, denture stomatitis

111

Olanzapine

Action: antagonizes dopamine and serotonin

Use: schizophrenia, mania, depression, anorexia nervosa, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy

112

Omeprazole

Action: prevents the transport of H+ ions into the gastric lumen by binding to gastric parietal cells, decreases gastric acid secretion

Use: GERD, ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, reduce the risk of GI bleed in critically ill patients, heart burn

113

Ondansetron

Action: blocks effects of serotonin on vagal nerve and CNS

Use: nausea/vomiting

114

Oxycodone

Action: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS altering the perception of pain

Use: pain

115

Oxytocin

Action: stimulates uterine smooth muscle contractions

Use: induce labor, postpartum bleeding

116

Pancrelipase

Action: replacement of pancreatic enzymes including lipase, amylase, protease

Use: pancreatic insufficiency, ductal obstruction

117

Pantoprazole

Action: prevents the transport of H+ ions into the gastric lumen by binding to gastric parietal cells, decreases gastric acid production

Use: GERD, heartburn, reduce the risk of GI bleed in critically ill patients

118

Paroxetine

Action: blocks reuptake of serotonin in CNS

Use: major depressive disorder, OCD, anxiety, PTSD

119

Phenazopyridine

Action: provides analgesia to the urinary tract mucosa

Use: urological pain

120

Phenytoin

Action: interferes with ion transport, shortens action potentials and blocks sustained high frequency repetitive firing action potentials

Use: tonic clonic seizures, arrhythmias, neuropathic pain

121

Procainamide

Action: decreases excitability and slows conduction velocity through the heart

Use: wide variety of ventricular and atrial arrhythmias; PAC, PVC, VTach, post cardioversion

122

Promethazine

Action: blocks the effects of histamine, blocks chemoreceptors in the medulla leading to antiemetic effects, possesses anticholinergic properties producing CNS depression

Use: allergic reaction, nausea and vomiting, sedation

123

Propofol

Action: hypnotic, produces amnesia with no analgesic properties

Use: anesthesia induction/sedation

124

Propranolol

Action: blocks Beta1 and Beta2 adrenergic receptors

Use: hypertension, angina, arrythmias, cardiomyopathy, alcohol withdrawal, anxiety

125

Propylthiouracil

Action: inhibits thyroid hormones

Use: hyperthyroidism

126

Quetiapine

Action: dopamine and serotonin antagonist

Use: schizophrenia, depressive disorder, mania

127

Ranitidine

Action: inhibits action of histamine in gastric parietal cells, decreases gastric acid secretion

Use: duodenal ulcers, GERD, heartburn, esophagitis, GI bleed

128

Rifampin

Action: inhibits RNA synthesis

Use: tuberculosis

129

Salmeterol

Action: bronchodilation through stimulation of Beta2 adrenergic receptors

Use: reversible airway obstruction, exercise induced asthma

130

Sertraline

Action: inhibits uptake of serotonin

Use: major depressive disorder, OCD, anxiety

131

Spironolactone

Action: diuretic inhibiting sodium reabsorption while sparing potassium and hydrogen

Use: potassium loss, hypertension, edema, CHF

132

Streptokinase

Action: converts plasminogen to plasmin which degrades fibrin clots

Use: pulmonary embolism, DVT, occluded lines, arterial thrombus

133

Sucralifate

Action: reacts with gastric acid to form a paste that adheres to ulcers

Use: management of GI ulcers, GI injury prevention from high dose aspirin and NSAID treatment

134

Terbutaline

Action: produces bronchodilation and inhibits hypersensitivity reactions, decrease number and intensity of labor contractions

Use: asthma, COPD, delay preterm labor

135

Tetracycline

Action: inhibits protein synthesis by causing bacteriostasis

Use: treat infection, gonorrhea and syphilis in penicillin allergy, chronic bronchitis

136

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

Action: bactericidal by preventing metabolism of folic acid

Use: bronchitis, UTI, diarrhea, pneumonia, multiple times of infection

137

Vancomycin

Action: bactericidal

Use: life threatening infections, sepsis

138

Vasopressin

Action: increases water permeability of the kidney's collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule leading to water retention; increases peripheral vascular resistance leading to increased blood pressure

Use: management of diabetes insipidus, VT/VF unresponsive to initial shock, GI hemorrhage

139

Verapamil

Action: prevents transport of calcium leading to decreased contraction, decreased SA and AV node conduction

Use: hypertension, angina, SVT, migraine

140

Warfarin

Action: disrupts liver synthesis of vitamin K dependent clotting factors

Use: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, A-fib, MI