Motion restrictions and Muscle Tone Abnormalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Motion restrictions and Muscle Tone Abnormalities Deck (44):
1

What level do modalities work at

Impairment level

2

What is an adhesion

Abnormal joining of something to something else that results from disuse and loss of ground substance

3

What is a contracture

Typically forms from fibrosis after an injury

4

What is intraarticular edema

Joint effusion or excessive fluid in a joint capsule

5

What is extraarticular edema

Accumulation of fluid outside a joint

6

True or False:
Nerves are very haphazardly laid down

True

7

Why are nerves haphazardly laid down

So the nerve is able to lengthen without being damaged

8

What helps extraneural tension more sliders or tensioners

Sliders

9

What helps intraneural tension more sliders or tensioners

Tensioners

10

What does strain counterstrain do

De-activates muscle spindle decreasing muscle tone

11

What does myofascial release do

De-activates muscle spindle via functional movement patterns which decreases tone

12

What activates the golgi tendon organ

Slow stretch

13

What does the golgi tendon organ cause the muscle to do

relax

14

What activates a muscle spindle

Fast stretch

15

What does a muscle spindle cause the muscle to do

Contract

16

When using thermotherapy how much do you want to increase the tissue temperature

4C

17

When an area is numbed electrically can the body perceive new pain

No

18

When an area is numbed using ice can the body perceive new pain

Yes

19

At what temperature does the skin start to burn

45-47c

20

What type of current do you use for motor nerves

AC current

21

What type of current do you use for muscle directly

DC current

22

What is flaccidity

Total lack of tone or no resistance to passive stretch

23

What can cause flaccidity

Motor nerve has been cut or damaged

24

What is hypotonicity

Decreased resistance to stretch

25

What is hypertonicity

Increased resistance to stretch

26

What are 2 types of hypertonicity

1. Spastic
2. Rigid

27

What is spastic hypertonicity

Velocity dependent, quick stretch, flailing motions

28

What is rigid hypertonicity

Resistance to stretch not dependent on velocity of stretch

29

What detect tone in muscles

Muscle spindles

30

What resets the muscle spindle

Gamma motor neuron

31

what does muscle spindles sense

Length and velocity of stretch

32

What is clonus

Multiple rhythmic oscillations or beat in the resistance of a muscle responding to quick stretch

33

What is a muscle spasm

Involuntary contraction of a muscle usually associated with a painful state

34

What is dyskinesia

Abnormal movement that is involuntary and has no purpose

35

What causes low tone

Loss of normal alpha motor neuron input to normal muscle

36

What causes high tone (2)

1. Peripheral stimulation due to pain, cold, stress
2. Loss of inhibitory control centers in the CNS

37

What is the big consequence of abnormally low tone

Poor posture

38

What are the consequences of poor posture (3)

1. Ligaments must perform work of muscles
2. Appearance changes
3. Pain

39

What are treatments for low muscle tone (10)

1. Hydrotherapy
2. Quick ice
3. E-stim
4. Biofeedback
5. Light touch
6. Tapping
7. Resistive exercises
8. ROM exercises
9. Functional training
10. Orthotics

40

What are some consequences of abnormally high muscle tone (7)

1. Discomfort or pain
2. Contractures
3. Abnormal posture
4. Skin breakdown
5. Increased effort by caregivers
6. Development of specific movement patterns
7. Inhibit function

41

Treatment for high muscle tone due to pain, cold, stress (8)

1. Remove source
2. Relaxation techniques
3. EMG biofeedback
4. Neutral warmth
5. Heat
6. Hydrotherapy
7. Cold towels
8. Stimulation of antagonists

42

Treatment for high muscle tone due to spinal cord injury (8)

1. Selective ROM
2. Prolonged stretch
3. Positioning
4. Orthotics
5. Meds
6. Surgery
7. Heat
8. Prolonged heat

43

Treatment for high muscle tone due to cerebral lesions (8)

1. Prolonged ice
2. Inhibitory pressure
3. Prolonged stretch
4. Inhibitory casting
5. Positioning
6. Reeducation of voluntary movement
7. Soft tissue mobilization to contralateral muscle
8. General relaxation techniques

44

Treatment for high muscle tone dues to rigidity (8)

1. Positioning
2. ROM exercises
3. Orthotics
4. Serial casting
5. Heat
6. Medication
7. General relaxation techniques
8. Soft tissue mobilization to contralateral muscle