Flashcards in Motive Perspective Deck (19):
A need is an internal state that’s less than satisfactory, a lack of something necessary for well-being
• Biological needs & other needs, either derive from biological needs or are inherent in our psychological makeup.
• The strength of a need influences the intensity of the related behavior
• Needs are directive: need SOMETHING; create movement either toward or away from it.
• Needs work through motives. Motives are a step closer to behavior.
• Motives are clusters of cognitions with affective overtones, organized around preferred experiences and goals.
• A need is a physical condition you don’t sense directly, it creates a motivational state that you do experience.
A press is an external condition that creates a desire to get (or avoid) something.
What are some examples of biological vs. psychological needs?
Biological needs: food, water, air, sex, and pain avoidance.
Psychological needs: Need for power, achievement and intimacy.
Are all needs extinguished through their fulfillment?
Biological needs must be satisfied repeatedly over time. As time passes, the needs gradually become more intense, and the person acts to cause the needs to be satisfied. After that, your need reduced, not extinguished.
What's the relationship between the strength of one's needs and the intensity with which you pursue them?
The strength of a need influences the intensity of the related behavior. The stronger the need, the more intense the action.
How do incentives shape the way we pursue the fulfillment of our needs? Define incentives
Incentives: the degree to which a given action can satisfy a need for you.
Incentive values determine how a motive is expressed behaviorally.
Need strength relates to long-term frequencies of need-relevant actions of any type. Incentive values should relate to choices within a domain of action. Needs influence behavior primarily at a non conscious level, whereas values influence the more conscious process of choice.
Define the concept of a dispositional motive. Do our motives changes depending on the situation were in?
Dispositional Motive: Some people naturally have more of a given motive much of the time than other people do. Such motive dispositions begin to form a picture of the person’s personality.
Motives vary across times and situations.
Describe Henry Murray/Apperception/TAT
Henry Murray believed that all people have the same basic needs, but that everyone has a dispositional tendency toward some particular level of each need.
Apperception: Needs are projected into a persons fantasy, just as a movie is projected onto a screen. This process is called apperception.
TAT: Thematic Apperception Test: view a set of pictures and are asked to create a story about each one.
What's Henry Murray's 4 basic needs
Need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation, need for intimacy
Define need for achievement, how people choose tasks?
Achievement motivation is the desire to do things well, to feel pleasure in overcoming obstacles.
People low in need for achievement prefer tasks that are either very easy or very hard. Very easy: they can perform really good on the task; Very hard: it won’t reflect bad on them if they did poorly.
People high in need for achievement prefer tasks of moderate difficulty and they work really hard on it.
Define need for power. How does it influence partner choice? How does it impact interpersonal styles? What do we know about reactions to stress and the need for power? When is the need for power likely to lead to “good” (i.e. prosocial) tendencies vs. “bad” (antisocial) tendencies?
Need for power is the motive to have impact on others, to have prestige, to feel strong compared to others.
Power motive predicts the likelihood of holding executive position
Tend to choose partners that are dependent
The need for power relates to taking an active, assertive, controlling orientation in peer interactions
They have an increase in the stress hormone cortisol after a failure
For those high in the sense of responsibility, the motive yields a conscientious pursuit of prestige, in which power is expressed in socially accepted ways. For those without this sense of responsibility though, the motive leads to problematic ways of influencing others.
Define need for affiliation. How does it impact behavior? What kinds of activities do people with a high need for affiliation prefer?
The need for affiliation is the motive to spend time with others and form friendly social ties.
The need for affiliation is reflected in concern over acceptance by others and by active attempts to establish or maintain positive relations with others.
People with a high need for affiliation spend more time engaged in social activities than people lower in this motive.
Define need for intimacy. What types of behavior does it lead to? How do people with low vs high intimacy needs behave when they are with others? What types of relationships do they enjoy?
Intimacy motivation is the desire to experience warm, close, and communicative exchanges with another person, to feel close to another person.
People with a high intimacy need are more likely to share with friends their hopes, fears, and fantasies. They laugh, smile, and make more eye contact when conversing than do people with lower intimacy needs.
People higher in the need for intimacy reported having more one-to-one exchanges with other people, though not more large-group interactions. The interactions involved more self-disclosure.
What are patterned needs? What's inhibited power motivation?
Some studies have examined patterns involving several needs at once, sometimes, in combination with other characteristics.
One well-known pattern combines a low need for affiliation with a high need for power, in conjunction with the tendency to inhibit the expression of the latter. This pattern is called inhibited power motivation. The reason for interest in this pattern depends on the context in which it's examined
Describe the difference between implicit and self attributed needs, and the kinds of behaviors they individually predict.
- Implicit motive: what the PSE measures. The person may or may not be aware of the motives.
- Self-attributed motive to refer to what’s measured by self-reports (explicit motive)
- Implicit motives are more basic, thus they're good predictors of broad behavioral tendencies over time.
- In contrast, self-attributed motives relate to specific action goals. They tell how a person will act in a particular situation. For this reason, they're better at predicting responses in structured settings.
Describe the difference between approach and avoidance motives.
Approach motives: try to success
Avoidance motives: avoid failure; never trying keeps you from failing
Under what circumstances do needs lead to problem behaviors
The need for power can play a role in developing a drinking problem. Drinking alcohol leads to feelings of power.