Motor/Parasympathetic Cranial Nerves - V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII (15) Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Motor/Parasympathetic Cranial Nerves - V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII (15) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motor/Parasympathetic Cranial Nerves - V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII (15) Deck (53):
0

What mnemonic device can you use to remember which cranial nerves have motor, sensory, or mixed functions?

Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Business Makes Money; sensory -S, Mixed - M, both - B (duh)

1

Which 5 cranial nerves are purely motor?

Occulomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)
Abducens (VI)
Accessory (XI)
Hypoglossal (XII)

2

Which four cranial nerves have a parasympathetic component?

Occulomotor, Facial, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus (3, 7, 9, 10)

3

Where do the nuclei of CN V reside?

At the mid pons level - CN V also exits the brainstem at this level, on the anterolateral surface of the pons

4

What nerve do motor fibers of CN V travel with? Through what foramen do they exit the calvarium?

Mandibular branch (V3) of trigeminal - exit via foramen ovale

5

What muscles do the motor fibers of CN V (trigeminal) innervate? (General group, two examples for bonus)

Muscles of mastication, including mastered and temporalis muscles

6

What mediates the afferent branch of the jaw jerk reflex? Where does it synapse?

Sensory fibers of V3 --> mesencephalon nucleus of V
(Muscle spindle from masseter muscle)

7

What nerve mediates the efferent branch of the jaw jerk reflex?

Motor division of V3 (short interneuron connects with the motor nucleus of V from the mesencephalon nucleus)

8

What would the symptoms of a unilateral upper motor neuron lesion (motor cortex or corticobulbar fibers) to CN V (trigeminal)?

The jaw jerk reflex may be increased

9

Would jaw weakness be expected with a unilateral upper motor neuron lesion to CN V?

No - there is bilateral input from upper motor neurons so weakness of jaw closing or opening would not be expected

10

What 3 symptoms would be expected with a unilateral lesion of CN V itself or it's nuclei?

1. Unilateral weakness of jaw closure
2. Reduced jaw jerk
3. Atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles

11

How can jaw strength be tested clinically?

Have pt bite down on a tongue depressor on both sides

12

What types of fibers does CN VII (facial) have?

Mixed - sensory and motor; also has a parasympathetic component
*sensory is covered on a separate lecture, so only motor and parasympathetic here

13

What is the motor nucleus of CN VII? Where is it located?

Facial nucleus - lies at the mid pons

14

What muscles do the motor fibers of VII innervate?

Muscles of facial expression (also stapedius)

16

Where does nervus intermedius synapse? What does it innervate?

Sphenopalatine and submandibular ganglia - to the lacrimal and salivary glands

17

Where do CN VII and nervus intermedius exit the brainstem?

At the pontomedullary junction (in a region called the cerebellopontine angle)

18

What do the axons leaving the facial nucleus pass over dorsal medially and loop over before exiting the brainstem?

The abducens nucleus

19

What is the bulge on the floor of the fourth ventricle created by facial nucleus axons called?

Facial colliculus

20

Via what foramen do facial nerve and nervus intermedius exit the calvarium?

Auditory canal (opening of the canal is the internal auditory meatus)
*facial nerve actually bends and exits ventrally out of the auditory canal via the stylomastoid foramen

21

How do you test the motor component of CN VII?

Ask patient to wrinkle their forehead, close eyes tightly, and show you their teeth - look for symmetry

22

What would be seen with a unilateral CN VII lesion of motor fibers?

Unilateral weakness of contralateral lower facial muscles but sparing of the forehead muscles
*this is because upper motor neuron innervation is bilateral to the forehead muscles but unilateral to the muscles of the lower face
*common cause is stroke

23

What symptoms would a unilateral lower motor neuron lesion of CN VII cause?

Ipsilateral weakness of the lower face and forehead muscles (hyperacusis (sensitivity to sound, due to weakness of stapedius muscle) and dry eye on ipsilateral side may also be present)
*common cause is Bell's palsy

24

What reflex do the motor fibers of CN VII mediate the efferent response of?

Corneal reflex (V1, ophthalmic n. mediates the afferent, via nasociliary nerve)

25

What is the parasympathetic nucleus of CN VII? Where is it located and what are the fibers leaving it called?

Superior salivatory nucleus - located near the midline of the upper medulla
* fibers leaving the nucleus = nervus intermedius

26

What kind of fibers does CN IX contain?

Mixed motor and sensory; also has parasympathetic fibers

27

What is the motor nucleus of CN IX? Location?

Nucleus ambiguus - located near the junction of pons and medulla (just caudal to pontomedullary junction)

((aMbiguus = motor; compare to nucleus Solitarius = sensory nucleus of 9 and 10))

28

What muscles does the motor component of CN IX innervate?

Stylopharyngeus (swallowing and palate elevation)

29

What is the parasympathetic nucleus of CN IX? Location? What are the fibers called when they leave the nucleus?

Inferior salivatory nucleus - near midline of the medulla
* axons leaving the nucleus are known as the lesser petrosal nerve

30

What ganglion does the lesser petrosal nerve synapse in? Eventual target?

Otic ganglion; to parotid gland

31

Via what foramen does CN IX exit he calvarium?

Jugular foramen

32

What is the best way to test the sensory function of CN IX? Why is this used instead of the motor functions?

Test the gag reflex; motor components are under control of other nerves as well, so is not particularly useful to isolate issues with CN IX only = CN X is responsible for the motor component of gag reflex, CN IX is only responsible for the sensory afferent branch of the reflex

33

What types of fibers do CN X contain?

Motor, sensory, and also a parasympathetic component
*only motor and parasympathetic are covered in this lecture

34

What is the motor nucleus of CN X? Location? What muscles does it innervate?

Nucleus ambiguus - lies near lateral medulla
*innervates soft palate, pharynx, larynx (elevates the pharynx during talking and swallowing)
*also involved in the efferent reflex of the gag reflex

35

What is the parasympathetic nucleus of CN X? Where does it originate?

Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus - near the midline of the medulla

36

Where do fibers leaving the dorsal motor nucleus of CN X go to innervate their targets?

To intramural ganglia associated with the heart, lung, and digestive tract

37

Where does CN X exit the brainstem? (Between what two structures?)

On medulla, between the inferior olive and inferior cerebellar peduncle

38

Via what structure does CN X leave the calvarium?

Jugular foramen (w/CN IX)

39

What symptoms will be seen in patients with a unilateral upper motor neuron lesion of CN X?

Usually not very prominent lesions, since there is substantial bilateral upper motor neuron innervation of CN X nuclei

40

What three symptoms will be seen in a unilateral lesion involving The nucleus ambiguus or CN X itself (lower motor neuron lesions)?

1. Dysphagia
2. Hoarseness
3. Inability to elevate pharynx on ipsilateral side

41

What are the parasympathetic functions of CN X?

Heart rate, respiration, digestion control

42

What is the motor nucleus for CN XI? Where is it located?

Spinal accessory nucleus - comprised of neurons that lie in the interomediolateral gray area between first 4 to 5 segments (C1-C5) of the cervical spinal cord between the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord

43

Where do fibers from the spinal accessory nuclei exit the spinal cord?

Between the dorsal and ventral roots on the lower medulla

44

After going superiority and entering the calvarium through the foramen magnum, via what foramen so fibers from the spinal accessory nucleus exit the calvarium again?

Jugular foramen

45

What kind of fibers does CN XI contain? What muscles do they innervate?

Sternocleidomastoid muscles and trapezius muscles
*elevates the ipsilateral shoulder and rotates head in opposite direction

46

Unilateral lower motor neuron lesions of CN XI will cause weakness in which shoulder and turning head in which direction?

Ipsilateral shoulder weakness (can't shrug) and difficulty turning the head AWAY from the lesion (is ipsilaterally innervated, but turns head away from side it innervates)

47

In a patient with a unilateral upper motor neuron lesion of CN XI, what shoulder would be affected? What difficulty in turning head would be expected?

~Weakness in contralateral shoulder elevation
~Difficulty turning head away from lesion (same as the lower, because the upper motor neurons don't cross the midline in CN XI like they do in most other and they do for the shoulder)

48

What kind of fibers does CN XI have associated with it?

It is a pure motor nerve

49

What nucleus is the motor nucleus for CN XII? Location?

Hypoglossal nucleus--> Near the midline in the mid to posterior portion of the medulla

50

Where do CN XII axons exit the brainstem?

Between the inferior olives and the pyramids, at the junction of medulla and spinal cord

51

Via which foramen does CN XII leave the calvarium?

Hypoglossal foramen (posterior aspect of the petrous temporal bone)

52

Unilateral upper motor neuron lesions of CN XII will cause the tongue to protrude to which side relative to the lesion?

Tongue will protrude and deviate away from the lesion

53

Unilateral lesions of CN XII or its nuclei (lower motor neuron lesions) will cause the tongue to deviate to which side when protruded? What other two symptoms?

Towards the side of the lesion; also atrophy and fasciculations (like any lower motor neuron lesion)