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Flashcards in Movement Analysis - Gait Deck (10)
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1

What General Observations can be made for Gait? (7)

  1. Independant?
  2. Type of surface
  3. General posture - is it flexed?
  4. Speed
  5. Cadence (# steps per min)
  6. Stride Length
  7. Arm Swing

2

What are the components of Gait?

Stance Phase (60%)

  1. Heel strike
  2. Foot flat
  3. Mid stance
  4. Heel off
  5. Toe off

Swing Phase (40%)

  1. Early swing
  2. Mid swing
  3. Late swing

3

What movements occur in the heel strike phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. 30 degrees hip flexion - eccentric glutes and hamstrings
  2. 15 degrees knee flexion - eccentric hamstrings 
  3. Ankle in plantargrade - isometric tibialis anterior
  4. Pelvis neutral - glutes with ROI

4

What movements occur in the foot flat phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip extends to approx 10 degrees flexion - concentric hamstrings and glutes
  2. Knee braced in slight flexion - eccentric quads
  3. Ankle into slight plantarflexion - eccentric tibialis anterior

5

What movements occur in the mid-stance phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip continues to move through extension to neutral - concentric hamstrings and glutes
  2. Knee moves to extension (0 degrees) - concentric quads
  3. Ankle in plantargrade - co-contraction of gastroc and soleus, and tibialis anterior with ROI
  4. Pelvis drops 5 degrees towards swing side - eccentric glutes with ROI

6

What movements occur in the heel off phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip very close to extension- concentric glues and hamstrings (eccentric hip flexors to slow and control movement)
  2. Knee in extension - concentric quads
  3. Ankle moves into plantarflexion - concentric gastroc and soleus
  4. Pelvis returns to neutral - concentric glutes with ROI

7

What movements occur in the toe off phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Full hip extension reached, followed by hip flexion - eccentric hip flexors for toe off - become concentric during swing phase
  2. Knee flexion - partly passive due to hip flexion - concentric hamstrings
  3. Ankle plantarflexion - concentric gastroc and soleus
  4. Pelvis remains neutral - concentric abductors with ROI

8

What movements occur in the early swing phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip flexion - concentric iliopsoas and rectus femoris 
  2. Knee flexion - concentric hamstrings 
  3. Passive recoil of gastroc and soleus = plantarflexion
  4. Pelvis drops 5 degrees and medially rotates towards stance legconcentric glutes with ROI

9

What movements occur in the mid swing phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip moves into flexion - concentric iliopsoas and rectus femoris
  2. Knee increases in flexion - to 70 degrees - concentric hamstrings
  3. Ankle dorsiflexion to clear toe from floor - concentric tibialis anterior 

10

What movements occur in the late swing phase and what muscles cause this?

  1. Hip flexion continues but is decellerating - eccentric glute maximus and hamstrings
  2. Knee moves into extension - eccentric hamstrings
  3. Isometric dorsiflexion to prepare for heel stroke - isometric tibialis anterior
  4. Pelvis becomes level - isometric glutes with ROI on stance leg