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Flashcards in MSK Deck (45)
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1

What are the major functions of the musculoskeletal system?

1) Locomotion
2) Activities of daily living
3) Provide structure and form for soft tissue
4) Protect vital organs
5) Hematopoesis
6) Storage reservoir for calcium and phosphorus

2

How do synovial joints move? What are some examples?

Freely movable
Knee, shoulder

3

How do cartilaginous joints move? What are some examples?

Slightly moveable (symphysis)
Vertebral bodies of the spine

4

Slightly moveable (symphysis)
Vertebral bodies of the spine

Slightly moveable (symphysis)
Vertebral bodies of the spine

5

Define synarhrosis (firbous) joints?

Two bones connected by fibrous tissue that are immovable
Skull, hard palate

6

Define amphiarthrosis (fibrocartilaginous) joints?

Joints connected by fibrocartilage with no joint cavity between them
Joints are slightly moveable
Vetebral joints, symphysis pubis, ascroiliac joints, costochondral junction

7

Define diarthrosis (synovial) joints?

Joints that are freely moveable
Articulating portion of each bone is covered iwth a thing layer of articular (hyaline) cartilage
Allows free, low-friction, painless gliding of bones on each other
Separated by a fluid containing cavity

8

How far can ligaments stretch before they snap?

6%

9

What three joins have fibrocartilagnious discs (menisci) between the articulating bones?

Knee
Temporomandibular
Ulna-carpal joints

10

What is the range of motion for a uniaxial joint?

Moves in one plane, two opposite directions

11

What is the range of motion for a biaxial joint?

Moves in two planes at right angles to each other

12

What is the range of motion for a multiaxial joint?

 

 

Moves in multiple directions

13

What are the characteristics of a hinge joint?

Morphology: configuration of the opposing articular surfaces, the presence of strong collateral ligaments, restricts motion
Uniaxial - flexion and extension
Ex: elbow, knee, interphalangeal joints of the fingers

14

What are the characteristics of a gliding joint?

Morphology: flat articular surface allows gliding over eachother
Uniaxial - moves in flexion and extension 
Ex: Patello-femoral joint

15

What are the characteristics of a pivot joint?

Morphology: bony pivot with an osteoligamentous ring. Allows circular rotation
Uniaxial - head nodding, supination, pronation
Ex: Atlas and axis, proximal radioulnar joint

16

What are the characteristics of a saddle joint?

Morphology: surface of both bones are convex in one direction and concave in the other direction
Biaxial - flexion, extension, adduction, abduction
Ex: carpometacarpal join of the thumb

17

What are the characteristics of a condyloid joint?

Morphology: One articulating surface is convex and the other is concave. Allows no rotation
Biaxial - flexion/extension; adduction/abduction
Ex: Carpometacarpal join of the fingers, radiocarpal joint, temporomandibular joint (which is also a hinge joint)

18

What are the characteristics of a ball and socket joint?

Morphology: one articulating surface is a hemispheric head and the other surface is cup shaped
Multiaxial - flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, external rotation/internal rotation, circumduction
Ex: Hip joint (deep cup) and shoulder (shallow cup)

19

What types of joints does a TMJ function as?

Condyloid joint
Gliding joint
Hinge joint

20

What determines the stability of a synovial joint?

The shape and depth of the articulating surface
Ligaments
Associated muscles and muscle tone

21

Define antalgic (Trendelenberg) gait?

Stance phase of gait is abnormally shortened compared to the swing phase on the affected side
More rapid transfer of weight form one foot (affected side) to the other (opposite) side
Associated with pain on weight bearing side

22

Define a waddling gait?

Duck like walk
Proximal muscle weakness of the hip
Seen in congenital hip dislocation

23

What can limit active range of motion?

Pain (bursitis, arthritis)
Swelling
Reduction of forces acting on the joint (muscle weakness)
Structural changes in the soft tissue (ligaments, muscles)
Changes in the boy compartment
Muscle bulk

24

How do we test C5?

Abduction at the glenohumeral joint

25

How do we test C6?

Flexion at the elbow joint

26

How do we test C7?

Extension at the elbow

27

How do we test C8?

Flexion at the finger joints

28

How do we test T1?

 

Abduction and adduction of index, middle and ring fingers

29

How do we test L1, L2?

Flexion of the hip

30

How do we test L3, L4?

Extension of the knee