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Flashcards in MSK A&P High Yield Deck (107):
1

Anterior draw test is positive in what type of injury?

ACL injury

2

Posterior draw test is positive in what type of injury?

PCL injury

3

Abnormal passive abduction test (valgus/ lateral force) is positive in what type of injury?

MCL injury

4

Abnormal passive adduction test (medial/ varus force) is positive in what type of injury?

LCL injury

5

On a McMurray test, there is popping with external rotation with what type of injury?

Medial meniscal tear

6

On a McMurray test, there is popping with internal rotation with what type of injury?

Lateral meniscal tear

7

What injury results drom a lateral force applied to a planted leg?

"unhappy triad"

ACL injury
MCL injury
Medial Meniscus injury

8

What is a bakers cyst?

Popliteal fluid collection commonly related to chronic joint disease

9

What 4 muscles make up the rotator cuff muscles?

1- Supraspinatus (abducts)
2- Infraspinatus (laterally rotates arm)
3- Teres Minor (adducts and laterally rotates)
4- Subscapularis (medially rotate and adduct)

10

What is the nerve innervation for the following nerves:

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis

Supraspinatus- suprascapular nerve

Infraspinatus- suprascapular nerve

Teres Minor- axillary nerve

Subscapularis- upper and lower subscapular nerves

11

Pain near lateral epicondyle of elbow is caused by...

repetitive extension (backhand shots)

Tennis Elbow!

12

Pain near medial epicondyle of elbow is caused by...

repetitive flexion (forehand shots)

Golfer's elbow

13

Most commonly fractured carpel bone?

Scaphoid

14

Dislocation of which wrist bone can cause acute carpel syndrome?

Lunate

15

FOOSH injury occurs to which wrist bone? Which nerve is injured?

Hamate bone

Ulnar nerve

16

Which nerve is involved in carpel tunnel syndrome/

Median nerve

17

Which nerve is involved in guyon canal syndrome? Who is this injury seen in?

Ulnar nerve

Cyclists (from pressure from handlebars)

18

What are the nerve roots of the brachial plexus?

C5- T1

19

What are the 5 major nerves of the brachial plexus?

1- Musculocutaneous (anterior division)

2- Median (anterior division)

3- Ulnar (anterior division)

4- Axillary (posterior division)

5- Radia (posterior division)

20

Nerve roots of the axillary nerve?

C5-C6

21

Nerve roots of musculocutaenous nerve?

C5- C7

22

Nerve roots of radial nerve?

C5- T1

23

Nerve roots of Median nerve?

C5- T1

24

Nerve roots of Ulnar nerve?

C8- T1

25

Nerve roots of Recurrrent branch of the median nerve?

C5- T1

26

Which nerve is injured fracture to the surgical neck of the humerous?

Axillary nerve

27

Which nerve is injured during an upper trunk compressino?

Musculocutaenous nerve

28

Which nerve is injured due to midshaft fracture of the humerus?

Radial

29

Nerve affected in saturday nigh palsy?

Radial nerve

30

Which nerve is injured with a supracondylar condylar fracture of humerus?

Median nerve

31

Which nerve is injured with a fracture of ,edial epicondyle of the humerus?

Ulnar nerve

32

Which nerve is injured with a fractured hook of hamate?

Ulnar nerve

33

What are the symptoms of an injured musculocutaenous nerve?

Loss of forearm FLEXION and SUPINATION

Loss of Sensation over LATERAL FOREARM

34

Drop wrist?

Radial nerve

Loss of elbow, wrist and finger extension

35

"ape hand"/ "pope blessing"

Median nerve damage

Loss of flexion of wrist, and lateral fingers and thumb oposition

36

"ulnar claw" is a problem with the ulnar nerve causing the inability to...

loss of wrist flexion, flexion of medial fingers, abduction and adduction of fingers

37

Erb palsy is caused by damage to what structures?

Upper trung--> C5- C6 roots

38

What muscles are deficient due to a upper trunk lesion?

Deltoid, suprasinatus nfraspinatus, biceps brachii

39

What causes klumpke palsy?

Lower trunk damage--> C8- T1

40

What does a Klumpke palsy look like?

Claw hand

41

What does Erb's palsy look like?

"waiter's tip"

42

What muscles are deficienct in Klumpke palsy?

Intrisnic hand muscles--> abnormally flexed MCP and Extended DIP and PIP

43

What is thoracic outlet syndrome?

Compression of lower trunk and subclavian vessels due to cervical rib fracture or Pancoast tumor

44

What does injury to the long thoracic nerve cause?

Winged scapula

45

What muscle deficit is seen in winged scapula?

Serratus anterior

46

What muscle does the lateral pectoral nerve innervate?

Pectoralis major

47

What muscle does the medial pectoral nerve inervate?

Pectoralis major and minor

48

What muscle does the middle subscapular (thoracodorsal) nerve innervate?

Latissimus dorsi

49

What can cause an upper brachial plexus lesion?

head and shoulder are forcibly separated--> during delivery

50

"inability to extend medial 2 fingers"

distal ulnar nerve injury

51

"inability to flex lateral 3 finger"

proximal median nerve injury

52

"inability to extend lateral 3 fingers?

distal median nerve injury

53

"inability to flex medial 2 fingers"

proximal ulnar nerve injury

54

Name the thenar muscles?

Opponenes poliicic
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis

55

What nerve are the thenar muscles innervated by?

Deep head of the ulnar nerve

56

What are the hypothenar muscles?

Opponens digiti minimi
Abductor digiti minimi
Flexor Digiti minimi

57

What muscles abduct the fingers?

Dorsal interossei

58

What muscles adduct the fingers?

Palmar interossei

59

What muscles flex the MCP joint and extend the PIP and DIP joints?

Lumbricles

60

Nerves roots of the obturator nerve?

L2- L4

61

Nerve roots of the femoral nerve?

L2- L4

62

Nerve roots of the common peroneal?

L4- S2

63

Nerve roots of the tibial nerve?

L4- S3

64

Nerve roots of the superior gluteal nerve?

L4- S1

65

Nerve roots of the inferior gluteal nerve?

L5- S2

66

What nerve is injured with fibrular neck fracture?

Common peroneal (L4- S2)

67

Which nerve is injured?

Decreased flexion and leg extension

Femoral nerve

68

Which nerve is injured in knee trauma or baker cyst?

Tibial (L4- S3)

69

What nerve is injured with IM administration of drug into upper medial gluteal region?

Super gluteal (L4- S1)

70

Which nerve injury has a (+) Trendelenberg sign?

Superior gluteal nerve

71

What nerve is injured with posterior hip dislication?

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5- S2)

72

Which nerve injury results in difficulty climbing stairs and hard time rising from seated position?

Inferior gluteal (L5-S2)

73

Which nerve innervates the gluteus medius and minimus?

Superior gluteal nerve

74

What nerve innervates the gluteus maxiums?

Inferior gluteal nerve

75

What innervates the perineum?

Pudendal nerve (S2- S4)

76

What innervates the posterior thight?

Sciatic nerve (L4-S3)

77

What nerves does the sciatic nerve divide into ?

Common peroneal and the tibial

78

Which nerve inverts and plantar flexes the foot?

Tibial

TIP

79

Which nerve everts and dorsifexes the foot?

Common peroneal

PED

80

Loss of sensation on the dorsum of the foot?

Common peroneal

81

Loss of sensation on the sole of the foot?

Tibial nerve

82

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Weak knee extension

L3- L4

83

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Weak dorsiflexion/ heelwalking

L4- L5

84

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Decreased patellar reflex

L3- L4

85

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Weakness of plantarflexion

L5- S1

86

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Decreased achilles reflex

L5- S1

87

Name the level of the lumbosacral radiculopathy:

Difficulty in toe walking

L5- S1

88

What is the artery paired with the long thoracic nerve?

Lateral thoracic artery

89

What is the artery paired with the Axillary nerve?

Posterior circumflex

90

What is the artery paired with the radial nerve?

Deep brachial

91

What is the artery paired with the median nerve?

Brachial

92

What is the artery paired with the tibial nerve?

Popliteal

AND

Posterior tibial

93

What induces the release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

Depolarization of the dihydropyridine receptor which is mechanically coupled to to the ryanodine receptor on the sarcoplasmic reticulum

94

What causes the conformation change that moves tropomyosin out of the muosin binding groove on actin?

Ca2+ binds troponin C and induces the change

95

What allows for a power stroke on myosin?

Myosin release of ADP and P--> displacement of myosin on the acin filament

(ATP hydrolysis)

96

Which bands shrinl during a power stroke?

H and I

Also between the Z line

97

Which band remains the same during power stroke?

A band

98

What causes detachment of myosin from the actin?

Binding of a new ATP molcule

99

Which fibers are red?

Slow twitch--> increased mitochondria and myoglobin

Type I

100

Which fibers are white?

Fast twitch--> increased anaerobic glycolysis

Type II

101

What leads to muscle contraction in smooth muscle/

L type voltage gated Ca channel--> increased Ca-calmodulin complex--> increased Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)--> phosphorylated myosin and actin--> contractoin

102

What leads to smooth muscle relaxation?

No--> increased cGMP--> increased Myosin light chain Phosphatase--> dephosphrylated myosin adn actin--> relazation

103

What are the steps of endochondrial ossification?

Cartilagenous model--> Woven bone--> lamellar bone

104

What are the steps of membranous ossification?

Woven bone--> lamellar bone

105

Whoch bones are fored by membranous ossification?

Bones of calvarium and facial bones

106

What do osteoblasts differentiate from?

mesenchymal stem cells

107

What do osteoclasts differentiate from?

monocytes and macrophages

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