MSK Anatomy 2 --> Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MSK Anatomy 2 --> Lower Limb Deck (67):
1

Hip Joint: Type of joint

Synovial

2

Hip Joint: Stabilised by

• Deep acetabulum
• Ligaments of the hip capsule ( iliofemoral, pubofemoral and ischiofemoral)
• Overlying muscles

3

Identify the ligaments of the hip Capsule:

1. Iliofemoral
2. Pubofemoral
3. Ischiofemoral

4

Psoas major
Actions
Innervation

Flexion Lumbar Nerve

5

Iliacus
Actions
Innervation

Flexion
Femoral nerve

6

Rectus femoris
Actions
Innervation

Flexion Femoral Nerve

7

Sartorius
Actions
Innervation

Flexion Femoral Nerve

8

Gluteus maximus
Actions
Innervation

Extension
Inferior gluteal nerve

9

Hamstrings
Actions
Innervation

Extension Sciatic Nerve

10

Gluteus Medius
Actions
Innervation

Abductors and medial rotators Superior Gluteal Nerve

11

Gluteus Minimus
Actions
Innervation

Abductors and medial rotators Superior Gluteal Nerve

12

Tensor fascia lata
Actions
Innervation

Abductors and medial rotators Superior Gluteal Nerve

13

Pectineus
Actions
Innervation

Adductors Femoral Nerve

14

Adductors longus
Actions
Innervation

Adductors Obturator Nerve

15

Brevis
Actions
Innervation

Adductors Obturator Nerve

16

Magnus
Actions
Innervation

Adductors Obturator Nerve and Sciatic Nerve

17

Muscles acting on the hip joint → flexors

Psoas major
Iliacus
Rectus femoris
Sartorius

18

Muscles acting on the hip joint → Extensors:

Gluteus maximus
Hamstrings

19

Abductors and medial rotators: acting on the hip joint

Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus
Tensor fascia lata

20

Adductors → of the hip

Pectineus
Adductors longus
Brevis
Magnus

21

Groin Strain →

Adductors

22

Posterior hip dislocation sign

in posterior dislocation the lower limb will appear shortened and internally rotated.

23

1. The hip Joint is a very stable joint; if dislocation occurs, it is often with association

fracture of acetabulum

24

4. Injections into the buttock should be given in the outer quadrant because

Sciatic Nerve

25

Femoral Triangle Borders

Lateral → Sartorius muscle
Medially → Adductor longus muscle

26

Femoral Triangle Contents

Femoral Vein
Femoral Artery
Femoral Nerve

27

Knee Joint → type of joint

Synovial

28

Knee Joint → stabilized by

Anterior and posterior cruciate ligament
Medial and lateral collateral ligaments

29

Ligaments of the Knee →

1. Anterior and Posterior cruciate ligaments
2. Medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) collateral ligaments
3. Quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament

30

Extensors of the knee

Rectus Femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus Intermedius
Vastus Lateralis

31

Flexors of the knee

Hamstrings
Semimembranous
Semitendinosus
Biceps Femoris

32

Hamstrings
Actions
Innervation

Flexes and medially rotates knee at hip
Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve

33

Semimembranous
Actions
Innervation

Flexes and medially rotates knee at hip
Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve

34

Semitendinosus
Actions
Innervation

Flexes and medially rotates knee at hip
Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve

35

Biceps Femoris
Actions
Innervation

Flexes and medially rotates knee at hip
Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve

36

Rectus Femoris
Actions
Innervation

Extension of leg at knee Femoral Nerve

37

Vastus medialis
Actions
Innervation

Extension of leg at knee Femoral Nerve

38

Vastus Intermedius
Actions
Innervation

Extension of leg at knee Femoral Nerve

39

Vastus Lateralis
Actions
Innervation

Extension of leg at knee Femoral Nerve

40

bursitis

1. There are many bursae (fluid-filled spaces) around the knee (suprapatellar, infrapatellar, prepatellar); the prepatellar bursa is most commonly affected by inflammation

41

Genu Varum

Bow legs

42

Genu valgam

Knock-Kneed

43

Popliteal fossa →
Superomedial

Semimembranous (and semiteninoud)

44

Popliteal fossa →
Superolateral

Biceps Femoris

45

Popliteal fossa →
Inferior

Gastronemius

46

Popliteal fossa →
Contents

Tibial Nerve
Popliteal vein
Popliteal Artery
Small Saphenous vein
Common fibular nerve

47

Identify and describe the tibiofibular joints Superior

Synovial joint

48

Identify and describe the tibiofibular joints Inferior

Fibrous

49

Compartment syndrome

The compartments of the leg are enclosed in Fascia where increased pressure (e.g. following tibial fracture) may cause vascular compromise

50

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Children in their growth spurts may experience pain in the tibial tuberosity, where the patellar ligament attaches: growth plate strain =

51

Shin Splints

is exercise-inducedd pain, which may be caused by periostitis around muscle origin

52

Ankle → Type of Joint

Synovial (between tibia and talus)

53

Ankle --> stabilised

Bony Morphology
Medially →deltoid ligament
Laterally → lateral ligaments

54

Muscles acting on the ankle Joint
Plantarflexion:

Gastronemius
Soleus
Long Flexors
Peroneal muscles

55

Muscles acting on the ankle Joint
Dorsiflexion:

Tibilas anterior
Long toe extensors
Peroneus tertius

56

Gastronemius
Action
Innervation

Plantarflexion
Tibial Nerve

57

Soleus
Action
Innervation

Plantarflexion
Tibial Nerve

58

Long Flexors
Action
Innervation

Plantarflexion
Tibial Nerve

59

Peroneal muscles
Action
Innervation

Plantarflexion
Superficial peroneal nerve

60

Tibilas anterior
Action
Innervation

Dorsiflexion
Deep peroneal Nerve

61

Long toe extensors
Action
Innervation

Dorsiflexion
Deep peroneal Nerve

62

Peroneus tertius
Action
Innervation

Dorsiflexion
Deep peroneal Nerve

63

Subtalar and transerverse tarsal Joints → movement

Inversion and eversion

64

1. Forceful inversion and eversion may tear

the collateral ligaments of the ankle (ankle sprains) especially on lateral side; the malleoli may also be fractured in these types of injury

65

2. Fractures of neck of talus may interrupt

blood supply to post. Part of bone causing avascular necrosis

66

1. Achilles tendon rupture tends to occur at

maximum stretch (knee extended, ankle dorsiflexed)

67

4. Calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease) affects the

region of insertion of the Achilles tendon in young adolescents during their growth spurts.

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