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Flashcards in MSK histology Deck (54):
1

What are the three types of muscle?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

2

What is the plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle cell called?

Sarcolemma

3

Are skeletal muscles striated?

Yes

4

Are skeletal muscles branched or unbranched?

Unbranched

5

Are skeletal muscles multinucleate or uninucleate?

Multinucleate

6

Where in the skeletal muscles do the nuclei lie?

Peripherally

7

What is the epimysium?

The connective tissue surrounding a muscle

8

What is the perimysium?

The connective tissue surrounding a muscle fascicle

9

What do we call the connective tissue which surrounds a single muscle fibre?

Endomysium

10

What are sarcomeres?

Smallest contractile elements in skeletal muscle

11

What are myofibrils?

Structure formed when loads of sarcomeres form end to end

12

Muscle fibres are composed of what?

Myofibrils

13

Why does skeletal muscle appear striated?

Because of the alternating thick and thin filaments in the sarcomere

14

What is a motor unit?

One motor neurone (nerve) and all the muscle fibres which it innervates

15

What denotes fine muscle control in relation to the motor unit?

The smaller the number of muscle cells that the nerve innervates the more precise the control

16

What is the synapse between motor nerves and muscle cells called?

Neuromuscular junction

17

Describe the three subtypes of skeletal muscle cell

Type I (red) - slow contracting & aerobic, many mitochondria, low force, fatigue resistant

Type IIA - intermediate of other two subtypes, relatively fast contracting and fatigue resistant

Type IIB (white) - fast contracting & anaerobic, fatigue easily, minimal mitochondria, high force

18

Which of the three skeletal muscle subtypes is the least common?

Type IIA

19

Describe the vasculature of cartilage

It's avascular

20

How does the cartilage receive nutrients?

Diffusion through the extracellular matrix

21

Is bone permeable?

No - it's cartilage that is permeable

22

What do we call cartilage cells?

Chondrocytes

23

What do we call immature cartilage cells?

Chondroblasts

24

Where are chondrocytes found within the cell?

Lacuna

Nb - spelling similar to laluna but this is a structure found on your nail!

25

What is the major component of the extracellular matrix in cartilage?

Water

26

What type of collagen is found in cartilage?

Type II

27

What type of collagen is found in most connective tissues?

Type I

28

What are the three subtypes of cartilage?

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

29

Which is the most common subtype of cartilage?

Hyaline

30

List some common sites where cartilage is found

Articular surfaces
Tracheal rings
Costal cartilage
Growth plates
Pre-bone ossification bones are cartilage

31

List some functions of bone

Support
Movement
Protection
Calcium metabolism
Haemopoiesis

32

What is haemopoiesis?

Red blood cell production

33

In adulthood which bones remain involved in haemopoiesis?

Axial skeleton
Limb girdles

34

Which type of collagen is found in bone?

Type I

35

Which type of bone morphology can be seen at the diaphysis?

Cortical bone

36

Which type of bone morphology can be seen at the epiphysis?

Trabecular/cancellous

37

What is the difference between cortical and trabecular bone?

Presence of spaces

38

Is bone avascular or vascular?

Vascular

39

What do we call bone cells?

Osteocytes

40

Where are the osteocytes found within the bone?

Canals

41

Name the two types of canals found within bone and the difference between them

Haversion canal - longitudinal
Volkman canal - horizontal

42

How does bone transfer nutrients from blood from one osteocyte to the other?

Osteocytes possess dendritic cell processes which run in canaliculi

43

What are cement lines in relation to bone?

Visible lines surrounding an osteon

44

What is an osteon?

Functional unit of bone

45

What cells do bone cells derive themselves from?

Osteoprogenitor cells

46

What are osteoblasts?

Cells which produce new bone

47

What are osteoclasts?

Cells which reabsorb old bone

48

What are osteocytes?

Cells trapped within bone matrix

49

What is the basic multicellular unit?

Osteoclasts and osteoblasts which participate in bone remodelling

50

Describe bone remodelling briefly

Osteoclasts drill down into bone -->
Blood vessels form and bring osteoblasts -->
Osteoblasts begin laying down new bone in this drilled tunnel -->
Only haversion and/or volkmans canals remain

51

What do osteoblasts need a good supply of to function normally?

Calcium

52

What is osteoid?

Osteoblast secretion consisting of collagen, GAGs & other organic compounds which eventually becomes mineralised

53

What is woven bone?

Bone fibres which have been laid down in a haphazard manner in response to a break within the bone

54

What will woven bone eventually become?

Lamellar bone

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