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Flashcards in MSK Pathologies Deck (42):
1

What is damaged in someone with "Skier's Thumb"?

the ulnar collateral ligament of the 1st MCP

2

Who is likely to suffer from IT Band syndrome?

runners and cyclers

3

What are the signs and symptoms of IT Band syndrome?

point tenderness just above the lateral knee, positive Ober's test

4

A large, firm nodule behind the knee is likely what?

a Baker's cyst

5

Baker's cysts affect who?

mainly those on their feet for long periods

6

Osgood-Schlatter's is a pathology due to overuse and injury to what structure?

the tibial tuberosity

7

What aggrevates the pain associated with plantar fasciitis?

- upon first standing
- stretching of foot
- point pressure

8

Achondroplasia is due to what pathogenic process?

mutation leads to a constitutively active FGFR3 protein that inhibits chondrocyte proliferation

9

What is the phenotype of achondroplasia?

dwarfism

10

What is the pathogenesis of scurvy?

lack of vitamin C prevents hydroxylation of procollagen

11

Who is likely to get scurvy?

alcoholics, old ladies eating "tea and toast," infants fed only pasteurized milk

12

What is the histologic hallmark of Paget's disease?

very prominent cement lines

13

Cement lines are a histologic feature of what bone pathology?

paget's disease

14

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies affect what aspect of the joint?

the ligamentous attachments, not the synovium

15

What are the features of Reiter's disease?

- arthritis
- non-gonococcal urethritis
- conjunctivitis

16

Psoriatic arthritis primarily affects what joints?

the feet and hands

17

What are the risk factors for developing gout?

- lead poisoning
- diet high in red meat, seafood or beer
- leukemia

18

How is Duchenne's muscular dystrophy genetically transmitted?

in an X-linked recessive fashion, but most cases are spontaneous

19

Tennis elbow is a pathology involving what structure?

the extensor tendons coming from the lateral epicondyle, particularly extensor carpi radialis brevis

20

How can you elicit pain in someone with lateral epicondylitis?

flex the elbow and extend the wrist (aggravates the extensor muscles like ECRB)

21

What sort of incident is likely to lead to Erb's palsy?

a fall onto the shoulder/neck or an instance of shoulder dystocia at birth

22

What sort of incident is likely to lead to Klumpke's palsey?

a sudden, superior pull on the arm

23

What is the primary clinical sign of Klumpke's palsy?

claw hand (like an ulnar nerve injury)

24

Cubital tunnel syndrome affects what nerve?

the ulnar nerve

25

Klumpke's palsy resembles what nerve injury?

ulnar nerve injury

26

What are the signs of cubital tunnel syndrome/ulnar nerve injury?

- claw hand
- Wartenberg sign
- Fromment sign

27

Cubital tunnel syndrome is due to what structure impinging on the ulnar nerve?

the two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris

28

What causes anterior knee pain syndrome?

often chondromalacia patella (wearing of cartilage on posterior aspect of the patella)

29

"It hurts more going down stairs than up them"

anterior knee pain syndrome

30

What are the two primary median nerve pathologies?

carpal tunnel and pronator syndrome

31

Pronator syndrome is a pathology of what structure?

the median nerve

32

In pronator syndrome, the median nerve is impinged upon by what?

the pronator teres

33

Hand of benediction is a sign of what?

pronator syndrome, median nerve compression at the pronator teres

34

What are the symptoms of cauda equina syndrome?

- loss of bowel control
- bilateral lower back and leg pain
- saddle anesthesia

35

Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition disorder is due to what underlying defect?

an ANKH mutation (gene that encodes an inorganic pyrophosphate transporter)

36

Signs of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

- positive Barlow Provocative Test and Ortolani Maneuver
- asymmetric hip abduction
- leg length discrepancy

37

What is tenosynovitis?

an infection of the synovial sheath in the digits of the hand, often caused by a puncture of the hand

38

how does tenosynovitis present?

with swelling and poor mobility of the fingers

39

The "shopping cart sign" is an indicator of what problem?

spinal stenosis

40

What is "jersey finger"?

an avulsion injury of the flexor digitorum profundus at the distal phalanx

41

What sort of incident causes jersey finger?

forced extension of the DIP during maximal contraction of the flexor digitorum profundus

42

What is the structural issue underlying mallet finger?

avulsion injury or rupture of the extensor digitorum tendon