Flashcards in MSK Pathologies Deck (42):
What is damaged in someone with "Skier's Thumb"?
the ulnar collateral ligament of the 1st MCP
Who is likely to suffer from IT Band syndrome?
runners and cyclers
What are the signs and symptoms of IT Band syndrome?
point tenderness just above the lateral knee, positive Ober's test
A large, firm nodule behind the knee is likely what?
a Baker's cyst
Baker's cysts affect who?
mainly those on their feet for long periods
Osgood-Schlatter's is a pathology due to overuse and injury to what structure?
the tibial tuberosity
What aggrevates the pain associated with plantar fasciitis?
- upon first standing
- stretching of foot
- point pressure
Achondroplasia is due to what pathogenic process?
mutation leads to a constitutively active FGFR3 protein that inhibits chondrocyte proliferation
What is the phenotype of achondroplasia?
What is the pathogenesis of scurvy?
lack of vitamin C prevents hydroxylation of procollagen
Who is likely to get scurvy?
alcoholics, old ladies eating "tea and toast," infants fed only pasteurized milk
What is the histologic hallmark of Paget's disease?
very prominent cement lines
Cement lines are a histologic feature of what bone pathology?
Seronegative spondyloarthropathies affect what aspect of the joint?
the ligamentous attachments, not the synovium
What are the features of Reiter's disease?
- non-gonococcal urethritis
Psoriatic arthritis primarily affects what joints?
the feet and hands
What are the risk factors for developing gout?
- lead poisoning
- diet high in red meat, seafood or beer
How is Duchenne's muscular dystrophy genetically transmitted?
in an X-linked recessive fashion, but most cases are spontaneous
Tennis elbow is a pathology involving what structure?
the extensor tendons coming from the lateral epicondyle, particularly extensor carpi radialis brevis
How can you elicit pain in someone with lateral epicondylitis?
flex the elbow and extend the wrist (aggravates the extensor muscles like ECRB)
What sort of incident is likely to lead to Erb's palsy?
a fall onto the shoulder/neck or an instance of shoulder dystocia at birth
What sort of incident is likely to lead to Klumpke's palsey?
a sudden, superior pull on the arm
What is the primary clinical sign of Klumpke's palsy?
claw hand (like an ulnar nerve injury)
Cubital tunnel syndrome affects what nerve?
the ulnar nerve
Klumpke's palsy resembles what nerve injury?
ulnar nerve injury
What are the signs of cubital tunnel syndrome/ulnar nerve injury?
- claw hand
- Wartenberg sign
- Fromment sign
Cubital tunnel syndrome is due to what structure impinging on the ulnar nerve?
the two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris
What causes anterior knee pain syndrome?
often chondromalacia patella (wearing of cartilage on posterior aspect of the patella)
"It hurts more going down stairs than up them"
anterior knee pain syndrome
What are the two primary median nerve pathologies?
carpal tunnel and pronator syndrome
Pronator syndrome is a pathology of what structure?
the median nerve
In pronator syndrome, the median nerve is impinged upon by what?
the pronator teres
Hand of benediction is a sign of what?
pronator syndrome, median nerve compression at the pronator teres
What are the symptoms of cauda equina syndrome?
- loss of bowel control
- bilateral lower back and leg pain
- saddle anesthesia
Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition disorder is due to what underlying defect?
an ANKH mutation (gene that encodes an inorganic pyrophosphate transporter)
Signs of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
- positive Barlow Provocative Test and Ortolani Maneuver
- asymmetric hip abduction
- leg length discrepancy
What is tenosynovitis?
an infection of the synovial sheath in the digits of the hand, often caused by a puncture of the hand
how does tenosynovitis present?
with swelling and poor mobility of the fingers
The "shopping cart sign" is an indicator of what problem?
What is "jersey finger"?
an avulsion injury of the flexor digitorum profundus at the distal phalanx
What sort of incident causes jersey finger?
forced extension of the DIP during maximal contraction of the flexor digitorum profundus