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Flashcards in MSK UL Fractures Deck (34):
1

What are the 3 main fractures that can happen to the humerus?

Surgical neck fracture, distal humeral fracture and mid shaft fracture

2

Which fracture can lead to damage of the axillary nerve?

Surgical neck fracture

3

If the axillary nerve is damaged what is the patient unable to do? Why>?

Abduct their arm
Deltoid and teres minor muscles are damaged

4

Why are humeral fracture commonly seen in elderly people?

Because they are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis

5

What is osteoporosis?

Decreased bone strength

6

What is the difference between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis?

Osteoporosis is the decrease in bone density and quality, making them more brittle.
Osteoarthritis, however, affects the joing and involves the thinning of cartilage

7

What are the 2 examples of distal humeral fractures?

Supracondylar and medial epicondyle fractures

8

Which blood vessel can be damaged in a supracondylar fracture? What effect can this have?

Brachial artery.
Can cause ischaemia and the resulting ischaemia can cause volkmann's ischaemic contracture

9

What is volkmann's ischaemic contracture?

Uncontrolled flexion of the hand because flexor muscles become fibrotic and short

10

Which nerves can be damaged in a supracondylar fracture of the humerus?

Median, ulnar or radial

11

When a medial epicondylar fracture of the humerus what nerve can be damaged and what does this cause?

The ulnar nerve. Can cause ulnar claw

12

What structures could be damaged in a mid shaft fracture of teh humerus?

Radial nerve and profunda brachii artery

13

What can damage to the radial nerve cause? Why?

Unopposed flexion (wrist drop).
Because the radial nerve innervates the extensors of the wrist .
Also, sensory loss to ....

14

What is thoracic outlet syndrome cause by?

Trauma, fractures clavicle or repetitive lifting of the arms above the head

15

What are the symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome?

Tingling, muscle weakness and discolouration

16

What is winged scapula most commonly caused by?

Damage to the long thoracic nerve

17

How may damage to the long thoracic nerve occur?

Trauma to the shoulder, repetitive movement involving the shoulder, structure becoming inflammed around the shoulder which press on the nerve, lymph node biopsy and axillary clearance

18

Where can the brachial pulse be found? Which is is used?

Medial to the biceps tendon. Used when taking blood pressure with a stethoscpope to hear korotkoff sounds

19

On what is venepuncture performed?

On the medial cubital vein

20

How can a supracondylar fracture occur?

By falling on a flexed elbow.

21

What is a supracondylar fracture?

A transverse fracture which spans between two epicondyles. The displaced fragments may damage the contents of the cubital fossa.

22

What can carpal tunnel syndrome cause?

Compression of the median nerve

23

What are the most likely causes of carpal tunnel syndrome?

Thickened ligaments and tendon sheaths

24

What are the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome?

Weakness and atrophy of thenar muscles if left untreated
Tingling, numbness an pain in distribution of median nerve and pain radiating down the forearm.

25

What are the tests for carpal tunnel syndrome?

Tinel's sign: tapping median nerve in the carpal tunnel to elicit pain OR
Phalens manoeuvre: Holding wrist in flexion for 60 seconds to give numbness or pain in median nerve

26

When axillary clearance is carries out what is remove?

The lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels draining the upper limb and breast

27

When may axillary clearance take place? Why?

When someone has a confirmed cancer biopsy.
It is carried out because lymph nodes may contain malignant cells from the breast hat may enter the lymph vessel and be carried in the lymph to the regional lymph nodes in the axilla.

28

When may axillary clearance take place? Why?

When someone has a confirmed cancer biopsy.
It is carried out because lymph nodes may contain malignant cells from the breast hat may enter the lymph vessel and be carried in the lymph to the regional lymph nodes in the axilla.

29

In thoracic outlet syndrome what structures are compressed by the corocoid process? What can this lead to?

Subclavian vein, subclavian artery and chords of the brachial plexus.
Can lead to pain running down the arms, numbness and parethesia

30

In thoracic outlet syndrome what structures are compressed by the corocoid process? What can this lead to?

Subclavian vein, subclavian artery and chords of the brachial plexus.
Can lead to pain running down the arms, numbness and parethesia

31

What nerve are the extensors of the forearm innervated by?

Radial

32

What nerve are the flexors of the anterior forearm innervated by?

Median

33

What nerve are the flexors of the anterior forearm innervated by?

Median

34

How can carpal tunnel syndrome be treated?

Using a splint to hold the wrist in dorsoflexion overnight to relieve symptoms.
Corticosteroid injections into carpal tunnel