Flashcards in Multi-Store Model Deck (24):
what is memory?
Memory is a term given to the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information. It stems from the cognitive approach.
who came up with the multi store model?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
what is coding?
format of info store.
what is capacity?
quantity of info stored.
what is duration?
length of time that information is held for.
sensory memory: coding, capacity and duration.
cod: iconic or echoic.
dur: 1/2 a second.
short term memory: coding, capacity and duration
dur: up to 30 seconds
long term memory: coding, capacity and duration
dur: up to a lifetime
what are the four types of forgetting?
decay, displacement, interference and retrieval failure.
Memory fades due to the passage of time
Form of forgetting when memories replace old ones
Memory can be disrupted or interfered with by what we have previously learned or by what we will learn in the future.
define retrieval failure
Information is said to be available (i.e. it is still stored) but not accessible (i.e it cannot be retrieved.) It cannot be accessed because the retrieval cues are not present.
what forgetting happens in the sensory memory?
what forgetting happens in the short term memory
decay & displacement
what forgetting happens in the long term memory?
decay, interference & retrieval failure.
what did Murdoch discover that provided evidence for the model?
Murdoch (1962) asked participants to learn a list of words that varied from 10 to 40 words and recall them. He found that words early in the list and at the end were the most frequently recalled. This supports the multi-store model as it was suggested that early words had been rehearsed and entered long-term memory whilst the final words were in the short-term memory (7+/-2).
explain one reason to do with LTM and STM to why this model is not accurate.,
The multi-store model states that both components of memory are unitary stores. However, research since then has proved this is not the case. Shallice and Warrington (1970) studied KF, a patient with amnesia, showed that he was much better at recalling digits he read to himself rather than were read aloud to him. This shows that there could be another short-term store for his own mental processing rather than for his auditory recall. Long-term memory has also been proved not to be a unitary store. Each store does not mix information regarding different topics. For example, one's memory of riding a bike is stored separately to how they make their favourite curry. This shows a problem within the multi store model as it shows that the model has oversimplified certain factors of the model meaning that it is not as accurate as it claims to be.
what is the relevance of amnesia to the model?
Patients with amnesia such as HM show that whilst their long-term memory may have been destroyed, their short-term memory is still completely intact. This shows that the model is right in thinking that the two types of memory are completely differential as an overall effect will not damage both parts of the model.
evidence for coding of STM
Baddeley (1966) asked participant to recall four different lists of words: acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar and semantically similar. Struggled with acoustically similar words. - Artificial stimuli rather than it being meaningful to the participant, it is suggested that if it was recall would have been better.
evidence of capacity for STM
Millner (1956) – The Magical Number 7±2 Jacobs (1887) - Digit span test. 443 females aged 8 – 19. The average remembered amount was 7.3 letters/9.3 words. - Did not consider extraneous variables such as age.
- We store chunks of information rather than individual letters/numbers.
evidence of duration for STM
Peterson & Peterson (1959) – lab experiment with 24 students who studied psychology. They were given 3 letter trigrams then asked to count back in 3's form a given number to prevent rehearsal. Then they were asked to recall the letters. Each time they counted back it was for a longer time. Letters were consonants only. When the students counted for 3 seconds, 80% recalled the trigram. After 18 seconds, this was only 10%. + Controlled lab setting so there is high control of extraneous variables.
- Psychology students may be familiar with the study or better memory recall.
- Validity – not every day you are asked to recall 3 random consonants.
evidence for coding of LTM
Baddeley (1966) asked participant to recall four different lists of words: acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar and semantically similar. Struggled with semantically similar words. - Artificial stimuli rather than it being meaningful to the participant, it is suggested that if it was recall would have been better.