Multicellular Organisms 1. 29 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Multicellular Organisms 1. 29 Deck (28):
1

What is a genome?

And organism with identical genes but can alter the expression of the genes

2

What are the basic machinery for development that can be altered by preset and past environment?

Genes.

3

Are homologous proteins functionally interchangeable?

Yes

4

What is the ectoderm?

External sheet of epithelial cells.

5

What does the ectoderm give rise to?

Nervous system and epidermis

6

What is the endoderm and what does it give rise to?

1. Consists of epithelial tissue rolled interiorly
2. Gives rise to gut, lung, liver

7

Where is the mesoderm and what does it give rise to?

1. Cells migrate in between the ectoderm and endoderm.
2. Muscle and connective tissue precursor

8

What is gastrulation?

1. Transformation of a hollow sphere into a structure with a gut

9

What is common amongst all animals that undergo development?

Mouth, anus, endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm. All arranged in the same pattern also

10

What are the two classes of proteins that are most important for development?

1. Cell adhesion/ protein signaling
2. Gene regulatory proteins: control expression of genes

11

What is the purpose of gene duplication?

Making multiple homologs of a gene for higher order organisms

12

What is a non-coding regulatory DNA that is a associated with each gene?

Instructions to produce a multicellular animal

13

What are instructions for producing a multicellular animal that are associated with each gene?

Non-coding regulatory DNA

14

Where do gene regulatory proteins bind to DNA?

Bind on DNA at regulatory elements

15

WHat is the purpose of regulatory elements on the DNA?

Allows for binding of gene regulatory proteins

16

What provides "uniqueness" to organisms when they have similar coding sequences?

Non-coding sequences

17

What are determined cells/

Cells whose fate is determined into specialized cell type without influence from the environment

18

What are completely undetermined cells?

Cells that respond rapidly to the changes in the environment

19

What are cells that are committed?

Cells with attributes of a specific cell type but are able to change with influence from the environment

20

What are unique methods to provide cellular differentiation

1. Asymmetric division.
2. Unequal distribution of molecules between daughter cells
3. Environment changes can influence the cells development
4. The molecules can alter gene expression

21

WHat is short range signaling?

Cell-cell contact

22

WHat is long range signaling?

Substances that diffuse through the extracellular medium

23

What is inductive Signaling?

Induction of different developmental program in select cells of a homogenous group leading to altered character.

24

What does irreversible imply?

Once achieved external signals become irrelevant

25

What provides cells with memory?

Positive feedback which amplifies an effect especially after environment starts asymmetry

26

What is a morphogen?

Long range inductive signal that imposes a pattern on a field of cells

27

What produces a gradient of the morphogens?

1. Localized production of inducers that diffuse away from source
2. Production of inhibitor that diffuses away from source and block the action of uniform distribution

28

What controls development of organisms?

Gene expression