Multiple myeloma Flashcards Preview

Core conditions Olivia MD > Multiple myeloma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multiple myeloma Deck (10):
1

what are the 4 features of multiple myeloma?

1. BONE PAIN- Lytic lesions, think pathological fractures
2. ANAEMIA- normocytic
3. HYPERCALCEMIA
4. RENAL FAILURE- light chains aggregate and damage tubules in nephron
- think CRAB

2

what is multiple myeloma?

One particular plasma cell proliferates in an uncontrolled manner, leading to one specific type of Ig being produced

3

why do we get anaemia?

Plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow causing anaemia (impaired production of normal blood cells)

4

why do we get renal injury?

accumulation of abnormal light chains (paraproteins) damages the renal tubules

5

what are paraproteins?

abnormal light chains

6

what are some complications of symptomatic multiple myeloma?

end stage organ failure e.g. kidney
immunosuppression (+ worse due to chemotherapy)

7

what are the Ig commonly found in Multiple myeloma?

IgG (2/3) and IgA (1/3)

8

how would we diagnose multiple myeloma?

• Protein electrophoresis
• Bone marrow biopsy
• Blood film
• U and E
Skeletal Xray looking for lytic lesions

9

what type of anaemia is it?

normocytic

10

why does hypercalcemia occur?

• Abnormal plasma cells secrete factors that activate OC and breakdown bone--> lytic lesions and hypercalcemia.