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FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY > Muscle 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle 6 Deck (18):
1

What is an allogenic (heterologous) transplantation?

Involves a different donor/host combination, and you often need immune suppression to stop attack on transplanted organ

2

What is autologous transplantation?

Involved in a single individual

3

What is iPS?

Can take any adult cell type, overexpress certain genes and push cell back to embryonic lineage

4

What stem cells are in the umbilical cord?

Mesenchymal and hematopoietic

5

What are the vast majority of stem cells based around?

Hematopoietic stem cells

6

Where are skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) located?

Between sarcolemma and basal lamina, close to blood vessels, perfectly positioned to receive signals from the muscle and the external environment

7

What stage are most muscle stem cells in and why would they leave this stage?

Quiescence - leave this to perform rapid differentiation and proliferation if injury occurred

8

Can other stem cell types cause regeneration if no satellite cells are present?

NO

9

What happens once a muscle cell expresses MyoD?

Committed to becoming a muscle fibre

10

What conditions benefit from transplant therapies?

Muscle injury, genetic disorders, aging and type II diabetes

11

What are the best type of stem cells to transplant for the greatest efficiency?

Freshly isolated uncultured muscle stem cells

12

What does stopping MyoD expression lead to?

Can transplant stem cells with 2-3 x the efficiency of MyoD positive cells

13

What process is observed in tumour cells and why?

Aerobic glycolysis - need glycolysis to produce biomass (nucleotides, amino acids, phospholipids) for new cells

14

What energy process do quiescent cells rely on?

Fatty acid oxidation

15

What happened when cells were cultured in a low glucose or galactose medium?

Reduced reliance on glycolysis

16

What does increased TXNIP expression lead to?

Inhibit glycolytic activity of cells (30% reduction) and when glycolysis was inhibited can reduce commitment of cells to myogenic lineage - inhibits proliferation

17

What is high in quiescent cells and cells in cell cycle?

Pax7, MyoD

18

What % of transplanted myoblast cells die within 24 hours?

90-95%