Flashcards in Muscle 6 Deck (18):
What is an allogenic (heterologous) transplantation?
Involves a different donor/host combination, and you often need immune suppression to stop attack on transplanted organ
What is autologous transplantation?
Involved in a single individual
What is iPS?
Can take any adult cell type, overexpress certain genes and push cell back to embryonic lineage
What stem cells are in the umbilical cord?
Mesenchymal and hematopoietic
What are the vast majority of stem cells based around?
Hematopoietic stem cells
Where are skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) located?
Between sarcolemma and basal lamina, close to blood vessels, perfectly positioned to receive signals from the muscle and the external environment
What stage are most muscle stem cells in and why would they leave this stage?
Quiescence - leave this to perform rapid differentiation and proliferation if injury occurred
Can other stem cell types cause regeneration if no satellite cells are present?
What happens once a muscle cell expresses MyoD?
Committed to becoming a muscle fibre
What conditions benefit from transplant therapies?
Muscle injury, genetic disorders, aging and type II diabetes
What are the best type of stem cells to transplant for the greatest efficiency?
Freshly isolated uncultured muscle stem cells
What does stopping MyoD expression lead to?
Can transplant stem cells with 2-3 x the efficiency of MyoD positive cells
What process is observed in tumour cells and why?
Aerobic glycolysis - need glycolysis to produce biomass (nucleotides, amino acids, phospholipids) for new cells
What energy process do quiescent cells rely on?
Fatty acid oxidation
What happened when cells were cultured in a low glucose or galactose medium?
Reduced reliance on glycolysis
What does increased TXNIP expression lead to?
Inhibit glycolytic activity of cells (30% reduction) and when glycolysis was inhibited can reduce commitment of cells to myogenic lineage - inhibits proliferation
What is high in quiescent cells and cells in cell cycle?