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Flashcards in Muscle + Muscle Tissue Deck (60):
1

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

-Location: attaches to bone

- Function: move the bones

-Look like: has stripes

*only voluntary muscle*

*can’t divide*

2

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

- Location: heart

-Function: involuntarily muscle movement

- Looks like: has stripes

*can’t divide*

3

Smooth Muscle Tissue

- Location: walls of hollow organs
>digestive/respiratory tract

- Function: involuntarily muscle movement

- Looks like: no stripes

* ability to divide(mitosis)*

4

Excitability or irritability

ability to revive and respond to stimuli

5

Contractility

ability to shorten forcibly

6

Extensibility

ability to be stretched and extended
*(extend)*

7

Elasticity

ability to recoil and resume original resting length
*(bounce back)*

8

Muscle Function

- Movement of bones and physical body

- pump blood

-push contents through

- generate heat

9

Sacrcolemma

phase membrane (cell membrane) of muscle cell (fibers)

10

Sacroplasm

cytoplasm of muscle fiber (cell)

11

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

endoplasm reticulum (ER) but modified
>(SR): stores and releases calcium

12

Endomysium

connective tissue wrapped around each muscle fiber

13

Perimysium

connective tissue that encloses a bundle of muscle fibers

14

Epimysium

connective tissue surrounding muscle/organ

15

Glycosomes

glucose+enzyme to breakdown glucose

16

Myoglobin

protein that binds to oxygen

17

myfibirils

smaller fibers that are found in a muscle fiber

- consist of thick and thin myofilaments

18

T Tubles

tube that connects the sacromlema to S.R

19

Sarcomeres

-smallest contractile unit of a muscle
to
-region of myofibril between 2 Z desks

-composed of myofilaments made up of contractile proteins

20

Facile

bundle of muscle fibers

21

Fiber

muscle cell

22

Tendon

strong cord of fibrous connective tissue

-extends from muscle to the bone

23

A-band

entire length of thick filament

- has thin over lapping it

24

I-band

without the thick filament

- without the thin

25

Midline

middle of A band

26

H-zone

area on A band where thin does not appear

- disappears during muscle contractions

27

Tropomyosin

protein in relaxed state blocks actins active site

28

Troponin Complex

regulatory protein when bond to calcium

29

Actin

moving protein

30

Terminal Cisterna of the SR

special part of the SR that follows the T Tubles

31

T Tubule

Carry message to cell membrane from SR to release calcium

32

Sliding Filament Model of Contraction

4 Steps

33

Step 1

Cross Bridge Attachment
- myosin heads binds to actin
* Calcium is required

34

Step 2

Power Stroke
- myosin head pull actin towards the center of sarcomere

*ADP and Phosphate is required

35

Step 3

Cross Bridge Detachment
- myosin heads let’s go of actin

*new ATP is required

36

Step 4

Cocking of Myosin Head
- myosin head is pulled back into ready position

*ATP is spilt to give us energy for detachment

37

Synaptic Cleft

space between neuron and muscle
*don’t touch*

38

Vesicle

membrane bond sac

39

Motor End Plate

special part of sarcolemma that has ACh receptors and junction folds

40

Synaptic Vessels

neurotransmitter will release through exocytosis

41

ACh (Acetylcholine)

neurotransmitters that binds to receptors on skeletal and causes action potential

42

AChase (Acetylcholinesterase)

enzyme that breaks down ACh into acetic-acid and choline

- it will end muscle stimulation signal

43

Myasthenia Gravis

weaker/less muscle contraction
• low amount of ACh receptors
• thought to be autoimmune

44

Isometric Contraction

muscle generates tension but muscle doesn’t move

- often occurs when load is too heavy

45

Isotonic Contraction

tension is generated and the muscle moves

- muscle changes length

• concentric contraction
• eccentric contraction

46

Concentric Contraction

muscle shortens; moves the load

47

Eccentric Contraction

muscle contracts as it lengthens

48

Slow Oxidative Fibers

make ATP through aerobic respiration

slow=refers to enzymes that spilt ATP (slow ATPases

- large blood supply

location: spine, core

49

Fast Oxidative Fibers

make ATP through aerobic respiration.

- fatigue but takes longer than glycolytic

fast= fast ATPases

sport = cross country run

50

Fast Glycolytic Fibers

make ATP through anaerobic respiration

- fatigue quick

fast= fast ATPases

- not large blood supply

51

Creatine Phosphate (CP)

creatine phosphate give a phosphate to ADP to create ATP
(extra energy)

duration of energy: 15 secs.

ex: weight lifting

52

Anaerobic Respiration

2 ATP and creates lactic acid

duration of energy: 30-60 secs.

ex: sprinting

53

Aerobic Respiration

Oxygen use. free fatty acids

- duration of energy: hours

ex: walking

54

Aerobic exercise results in an increase of

- muscle capillaries

- number is mitochondria

- myoglobin synthesis

55

Resistance exercise (anaerobic) results in

- muscle hypertrophy

- increased mitochondria , myofilaments and glycogen stores

56

Hyperplasia

smooth muscle can divide

57

Muscular Dystrophy

A group of genetic diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass

58

Developmental Aspects

Regeneration
- cardiac/ skeletal becomes amitotic but can lengthen/thicken

- myoblast satellite cells show limited regenerate ability

- cardiac cells lack satellite

- smoothies muscle = good regeneration ability

59

Developmental Aspects: Men and Female

- greater strength in men (testosterone)

- women’s skeletal muscle= 36% body mass

- men’s skeletal muscle = 42% body mass

60

Developmental Aspects: age related

- muscle fibers decrease+ connective tissue increases
• muscle>stringy
• age 80: muscle mass lost (sarcopenia)
- reserves sarcopenia = exercise

- aging if cardiovascular system affects every organ

- Atherosclerosis: block arteries, leads to intermittent claudication + cause severe pain in leg muscle