Muscle System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Muscle System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle System Deck (30):
1

Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells

Hemoglobin

2

A pigmented protein in muscle that carries oxygen

Myoglobin

3

The amount of oxygen required after a physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to glucose

Oxygen Debt

4

A solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is compared

Isotonic

5

Opposing muscles

Prime mover/agonist

6

Muscles that contract and assist prime movers

Synergist

7

Work in opposition of the prime mover

Antagonist

8

With oxygen

Aerobic

9

Without oxygen

Anaerobic

10

How are muscles named?

Location, shape, action, region or bone they are attached to

11

Immovable end of the muscle

Origin

12

Movable end of the muscle

Insertion

13

A muscle exercised strenuously for a prolonged period of time may lose its ability to contract

Muscle fatigue

14

When a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts to its full extent, it cannot contract partially

All or none response

15

What are the two types of smooth muscle?

Multiunit and visceral

16

Of or involving muscular contraction against resistance in which the length of the muscle remains the same.

Isometric

17

A nontumorous enlargement of an organ or a tissue as a result of an increase in the size rather than the number of constituent cells.

Hypertrophy

18

A wasting or decrease in size of a body organ, tissue, or part owing to disease, injury, or lack of use

Atrophy

19

A type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at axon ends of many neurons, transmits nerve messages across synapses

Acetylcholine

20

An enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine

Acetylcholinesterase

21

A biochemical that stores energy in muscle tissue

Creatine phosphate

22

Specialized part of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction

Motor end plate

23

Synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber

Neuromuscular junction

24

Chemicals that axons secrete on effectors or other neurons

Neurotransmitters

25

Layers of dense connective tissue that surround and separate each muscle

Fascia

26

Consists of two twisted strands with globular cross bridges projected outward along the strands

Myosin

27

Globular protein wit myosin binding sites

Actin

28

What 2 proteins are associated with actin?

tropomyosin and troponin

29

If allowed to, the myosin crossbridge attaches to the binding site on the actin filament and bends, pulling on the actin filament

Sliding filament theory

30

What are 3 energy sources for muscle contraction?

ATP, creatine phosphate, cellular respiration