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Flashcards in Muscle Tissue Deck (221):
1

what are the three types of muscular tissue?

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

2

what type of muscle is voluntary

skeletal

3

what are the striated muscular tissue?

skeletal cardiac

4

what muscle type is unstriated?

smooth

5

what muscle tissues are unvoluntary

cardiac and smooth

6

what are the functions of muscular tissue?

moving the skeleton
posture
constriction
heart constriction
storing and moving substances
producing heat

7

what does muscular tissue store?

glycogen

8

why do we need dilation and vasoconstriction?

tells blood which way to go

blood temperature regulation

9

what do you need for a muscle to contracts?

sugar & ATP

10

what do you produce when a muscle contracts?

heat

11

what does your muscle use to constrict?

sphincters
vasoconstriction
dilation

12

what are the 2 tissue types that are electrical excitability?

muscle
nervous

13

excitable

when you do something to a muscle cell, it reacts

14

contractibility

what happens when a muscle cell reacts

15

contractility

only tissue that contracts

16

extensibility

ability to stretch

17

elasticity

after stretching it returns to its normal shape

18

what does a muscle always have when it contracts

"an antagonist"

19

excitable ____, contractibility ______

tells it react

tells muscle what it does

20

all muscles run

parallel

21

if you want to make a muscle stronger, how do you structure it?

end to end

22

if you want to make a muscle thicker, how do you structure the muscle?

stack them

23

when a muscle contracts, we call that an

action

24

what is an example of an action?

when a bicep contracts, the action is flexion of lower arm

25

what are the muscle components from largest to smallest?

muscle group
muscle
fascicle
myofiber (muscle cell)
myofibril
myofilaments

26

what are the muscle components from smallest to largest

myofilaments
myofibril
myofiber (muscle cell)
fascicle
muscle
muscle group

27

what muscle components are macroscopic?

muscle group
muscle
fascicle

28

what muscle components are microscopic?

myofiber (muscle cell)
myofibril
myofilaments

29

what is the orgin of a muscle?

point of attachment that doesn't move or it moves very little

30

what is the insertion of a muscle

point of attachment that moves

31

what are muscles made of?

stacked fascicle

32

muscle group

muscles working together to accomplish an action (movement)

33

muscle

a group of muscle fascicles having a common origin and insertion

34

fascicle

largest subunit of a muscle comprised of muscle cells

35

myofiber

muscle cell

a single cell

36

myofibril

subunits within a muscle cell

37

how are the myofibrils structured?

all are parallel and end to end

38

what are the myofilaments of the cytoskeleton?

actin and myosin

39

myofilaments

actin and myosin

"slide" across one another shortening the cell

40

what does how the myofilaments slides across eachother prove?

how the myofilaments slide across eachother is how the muscle contracts

41

what are the macroscopic components from largest to smallest

muscle group

muscle

fascicle

42

what are the microscpoic muscle components from smallest to largest?

myofilaments

myofibril

myofiber

43

myo-

macro

44

sarco-

micro

45

epimysium

outside of entire muscle

46

perimysium

covering around the fascicle

47

mysium

slippery connective tissue allowing the muscles to slide or else they stick together

48

endomysium

covers the muscle cell

49

endomysium is also known as

myofiber

50

are muscle cells dependent or independent from one another?

muscle cells can move independently from one another

51

sarcolemma

membrane of the muscle cell (myofibers)

52

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of muscle cells

53

what coverings in connective tissue can move independently from one another?

muscle cells
fascicles
muscles
muscle groups

54

how do coverings move independently from one another

they must be able to slide

55

what is the connective tissue that allows the muscle to slide?

mysium

56

how many types of mysium are there?

3

endomysium
perimysium
epimysium

57

endomysium

covers the muscle cell

also known as myofiber

58

perimysium

covers the fascicle

59

epimysium

covers the entire muscle

60

what makes the muscle contract?

the nervous system

61

innervation

this is the nerve supply going to the muscle cells that causes it to constrict

62

isotonic contraction

when the contraction is able to overcome the resistance

63

how many types of isotonic contractions are there?

2

eccentric isotonic contraction
concentric isotonic contraction

64

eccentric isotonic contraction

is the lengthening of the muscle underload

65

concentric isotonic contraction

the shortening of the muscle underload

66

isometric contraction

resistance overcomes contraction

67

when a muscle contracts and doesn't relax

tetanus

68

short tetani

the muscle will finally relax

69

long tetani

rigamortis (dead)

70

twitch

a SINGLE motor response (depolarization) to a muscle cell

71

fast twitch

low blood supply, white muscle

ex: chicken flaps fast but doesn't go anywhere. chicken is white meat

72

slow twitch

rich blood supply, red muscle

ex: duck

73

what does a skeletal muscle bundle consists of

a body (belly) connected by tendons to the skeleton

74

aponeuroses

a flat tendon

ex: outside of leg

75

the flat tendon outside of leg is called

tensor fascilata

76

what is skeletal muscle bundle specifically connected to

periosteum

77

what helps the skeletal muscle bundle connect to the periosteum

tendons
aponeuroses

78

muscle fibers

muscle cells = myofibers

79

hypertrophy

growth (in size) of a cell

80

hyperplasia

growth in the number of cells

81

hyperplasia makes more

meiosis

82

hypotrophy

loss of cell size

83

hypoplasia

loss of cells

84

atrophy

loss of tissue mass

85

neoplasia

abnormal cell/tissue growth ( cancerous )

86

metaplasia

change in cell/ tissue type

87

hypertonia

increase in muscle tone

88

hypotonia

decrease in muscle tone

89

neoplasia is also characterized as

out of control tissue growth

90

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of muscle cell

91

transverse tubules (T tubules)

tubular structures that run perpendicular in a muscle cell carring sodium

92

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a muscle cell

93

sarcoplasmic reticulum

stores calcium

94

terminal cisternae

terminal end of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

where sodium leaves and returns

ex: how air gets in and out of balloon

95

triad

combination of a T tubule and 2 terminal cristernae

96

motor end plate

neuromuscular junction

97

sarcomere

contracting unit of a muscle cell

98

sarcomers

inside muscle cells

99

what actually contracts when a muscle contracts

sarcomers

100

sodium is an ___ and ___ = electricity

ion

101

where does the nuclear system come and contact with muscle?

motor end plate

102

z discs

outside border of a sarcomere

103

A band

dark band in a sarcomere that is the ntire length of the mysoin

104

I band

light band in a sarcomere which encompasses only the length of actin which does not overly the mysoin

105

H zone

length between opposing actin molecules

106

M line

middle of the sarcomere

107

titin

protein that holds myosin in place

108

actin

"thin" filament that slodes across mysoin

109

myosin

"thick" filament that bends during muscle contraction

110

what are the proteins involved in muscle contraction

titin

actin

myosin

111

what are myofibrils made of

thick filaments and thin filaments

112

what are the thick filaments and thin filaments that make up myofibrils made of?

protein

113

how are the filaments in the sarcomere arranged?

in compartments called sarcomeres

114

what are the compartments that filaments are arranged in called?

sarcomeres

115

what causes the striated appearance of skeletal muscle

the pattern of overlap of thick and thin filaments that consists of zones and bands

116

what are the additional proteins associated with a sarcomere called

"structural" proteins

117

why are the additional proteins assiciated with sarcomeres called "structural"

they are not "directly" involved in the SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM

118

what are "structural" proteins "directly" not involved in?

SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM

119

what are the "structural" proteins

troponin

tropomyosin

titin

120

troponin

a protein that anchors to tropomyosin

attachment site for calcium

121

what is the attachment site of calcium

troponin

122

tropomyosin

protein that covers the "active" site of actin

prevents CROSSBRIDGES from forming

123

what happens when a "crossbridge" forms?

when calcium attaches to troponin, it "bends" tropomysoin away from the active sites allowing for "crossbridges" to form and thus the muscle cell to shorten

124

what is the protein that anchors to tropomyosin

troponin

125

what protein prevents crossbridges from forming

tropomyosin

126

what are the myofilaments in a sarcomere

actin and myosin

127

what is the contractile unit

sarcomeres

128

does the H zone change in length

yes

129

does the I band change in length

yes

130

does the A band change in length

no because it's the length of myosin, it doesn't change

131

what is the study of tissue?

myology

132

what is a presynaptic membrane?

an axon, or part of an axon terminating into the axon know or terminal

133

where does the axon terminate into?

telodendria

134

where does the telodendria terminate into?

the axon knob

135

what is inside the axon knobs?

synaptic vessicles

136

what does the synaptic vesicle that is inside the axon knob have inside of it?

NEUROTRANSMITTER

137

what is the protein that is inside the synaptic vesicle?

a NEUROTRANSMITTER

138

what is the neurotransmitter made on?

ribosomes

139

function of synaptic vesicle

transport vesicle that are full of neurotransmitter that are made according to DNA

140

ligand gates

let calcium in once sodium depolarizes and opens them

141

what does calcium do after it is inside the axon knob?

calcium breaks open synaptic vesicles and lets out nerotransmitters

142

what is the space between the pre- and post- synaptic membrane?

synaptic cleft

143

what are the protein gates that are on the postsynaptic membrane called?

neuroreceptors

144

what has to happen for the neuroreceptors to open up the gates into the postsynaptic membrane?

neurotransmitter has to land on BOTH SIDES of the gate

145

what kind of gate is the neuroreceptors?

they are ion gates that allow in sodium

146

what are the only things that a postsynaptic membranes could be?

another neuron

or a muscle

147

describe depolarization muscle contraction

on outside of T-tuble, sodium comes down and opens up the gate. calcium comes out and attaches to the troponin, bending the tropomysoin, exposing the "active" site, allowing for crossbridges, and the muscle contracts

148

when is calcium involved?

calcium is only involved at the synapse

149

where is the only place you can stop a nerve impulse?

the synaptic cleft bc that is when it is exposed and going from electrical to chemical

150

synaptic vesicle

contains neurotransmitter

151

components of presynaptic membrane

synaptic vesicle
neurotransmitter
axon/synpatic knob
Ca+ gates (sodium gates)
synaptic cleft

152

neurotransmitter

protein that opens gates on postsynaptic membrane

in synaptic vesicle

153

what are the different names for the terminal end of a axon

synaptic knob
axon knob
axon terminal

154

where are the synaptic vesicles located?

axon knob

155

Ca+ gates (calcium gates)

around the synaptic knob

allows for calcium to go in to release the neurotransmitter by breaking down membrane of the synaptic vesicle

156

synaptic cleft

distance between the pre and postsynaptic membrane

157

in a muscle cell, Na+ has to

go down to T Tubles to keep depolarization going.

158

what is the most common neurotransmitter

acidocholine (ACh)

159

components of postsynaptic membrane

neuroreceptors
protein gates
sarcolemma
transverse tubule

160

neuroreceptors

receptor sires on the membrane that act as gates allowing sodium (Na+) to enter

161

protein gates

sodium travels in T tubules to the sarcoplasmic reticulum

this happens in NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

162

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of a muscle cell

"invaginated" - poking fingers in clay: allows neurotransmitters to open gates

163

transverse tubule

extend from sarcolemma deep into the sarcoplasma carrying sodium and forming a "triad" with sarcoplasmic reticulum

164

components within the sarcoplasm

transverse tubule
sarcoplasmic reticulum
terminal cisternae
triad
calicum

165

where is the transverse tubules?

sarcoplasm

166

function of transverse tubules

carries sodium which will eventually open calcium gates and form a triad

167

sarcoplasmic reticulum

storage "sacs" for calcium

168

terminal cisternae

"gated" end of sarcoplasmic reticulum where calcium comes out into sarcoplasm

169

traid

1 t tubule
2 sarcoplasmic reticulum

170

calcium

attaches to the troponin

171

what is ATP used for in the contraction/relaxtion cycle

it does NOT take energy to make a sarcomere contract, but it does to make it relax again

172

what is needed for the crossbridge to be broke and myosin "re-cocked" after muscle contraction

ATP

173

ATP function in relaxation cycle

ATP is used to "pump" (by active transport) calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

174

how many ATP molecules does it take to get back to resting potential?

3 ATP molecules
1.) pump calcium
2.) break crossbridge
3.) recock mysoin heads

175

what happens if ATP is unavailable for relaxation?

you experience a "cramp" (tetany)

176

what happens if a cramp never leaves?

rigor

rigormorits = dead

177

characteristics of cardiac muscle

striated
involuntary
auto-rhythmic

178

what are intercalated discs in cardia muscle tissue a result of?

gap junctions and desmosomes

179

what are gap junctions and desmosomes in cardiac muscle tissue

we wanted to flush sodium through there really quick

180

smooth muscle tissue characteristics

involuntary, non striated

tapered at the end (fusiform)

181

what does calcium cause in the synaptic vesicle

exocytosis

182

what houses neurotrasmitters

synaptic vesicle

183

what are the receptors on dendrites

ACh

184

where is calcium stored for muscular contraction?

cytoplasmic reticulum

185

what is the terminal sisterna

opening of cytoplasmic reticulum

186

what is the thickest filament

myosin

187

what is the thinest filament

actin

188

what hold myosin in place

titin

189

isotonic

force overcomes resistance and muscle shortens

leads to contraction

190

isometric

force doesn't overcome resistance

191

tetanus muscle

contracts but doesn't relax

192

why is the A band considered the dark band

bc it has all of mysoin in it

193

what bands change

H & I

194

does the A band change

no

195

fibrosis

protein scars with no cells

196

myalgia

pain in muscles

197

myoma

muscle tumor

198

myocistitis

inflammation of muscle

199

tendinitis

inflammation of tendons

200

rigamortis

can't form anymore ATP

201

aponeurosis

flat tendon

202

skeletal muscle picture

sarcomere

203

what are the names for the presynaptic membrane

axon
axon knob
synpatic knob

204

postsynaptic membrane can only go to

nerve
muscle
gland

205

what does cytpolasmic reticulum store

calcium

206

motor end plate

presynaptic membrane communicates with muscle

207

neuromuscular junction

nerve and muscle meet

208

sarcoplasma

cytoplasma of muscle

209

synapse

one neuron ends, one neuron begins

210

agonist

prime mover

211

antagonist

opposes prime mover

212

synergist

helper muscle

213

insergin

MOVES

214

what covers muscle cell

endomysin

215

innervation

nerve supply

216

what covers each muscle and epimysium and separates them from eachother?

fascia

217

how to name

body regin, site of attachment, orientation, shape, and size

218

circular

eyes and mouth

219

convergent

pecs

220

parallel

abs

221

penate

fusiform shape (fish)