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Flashcards in Muscles Deck (109):
1

Buccinator Origin

alveolar process of maxilla and mandible

2

Depressor labii inferioris Origin

mandible between anterior midline and mental foramen

3

Levator labii superioris origin

Maxilla superior to infra-orbital foramen

4

Orbicularis Oris

Origin: Maxilla and mandible
Insertion: lips
Action: Compression, contraction, and protrusion of lips

5

Depressor anguli oris

Origin: continuous with platysma on oblique line of mandible
Insertion: Angle of mouth into orbicularis and skin
Action: Depresses angle of mouth

6

Digastric

Origin Anterior belly: Inferior surface of mandible at chin
Origin Posterior belly: mastoid region of temporal bone
Insertion: hyoid bone
Action: depresses mandible or elevates larynx

7

Geniohyoid

Origin: medial surface of mandible
Insertion: hyoid bone
Action: Elevates hyoid bone and depresses mandible

8

Lateral pterygoid

Origin: lateral pterygoid plate
Insertion: Medial surface of mandibular ramus
Action: protrude mandible, opens jaws, performs lateral excursion

9

Longissimus capitis

Origin: Anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C6
Insertion: Inferior surface of basilar part of occipital bone
Action: Flexes and assists in rotating cervical vertebrae and head

10

Masseter

Origin: Zygomatic arch
Insertion: Ramus of mandible, coronoid process
Action: Elevates and protrudes mandible, deep fibers retrude it

11

Medial pterygoid

Origin: Medial surface of lateral plate of pterygoid, pyramidal process of palatine bone, maxillary tuberosity
Insertion: Medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible inferior to mandibular foramen
Action: Bilaterally: protrude and elevate mandible. Unilaterally and alternately: produces side-to-side movements

12

Mylohyoid

Origin: Mylohyoid line of mandible
Insertion: Median raphe and body of hyoid bone
Action: Elevates hyoid bone, base of tongue, floor of mouth; depresses mandible

13

Nasalis

Origin: Canine eminence above and lateral to incisive fossa of maxilla
Insertion: Aponeurosis on nasal cartilages
Action: Draws ala of nose toward septum, compresses nostrils, alar part opens nostrils

14

Subscapularis

Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Upper and lower subscapular nerves
Action: Medially rotates arm at shoulder and adducts it; helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity

15

Supraspinatus

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna
Insertion: Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Suprascapular nerve
Action: Initiates arm abduction, acts with rotator cuff muscles

16

Infraspinatus

Origin: Infraspinous fossa of scapula and deep fascia
Insertion: Middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Suprascapular nerve
Action: Lateral rotation of arm (with teres minor)

17

Teres minor

Origin: Upper 2/3 of posterior surface of lateral border of scapula
Insertion: Inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Axillary nerve
Action: Laterally rotates arm

18

Semimembranosus

Origin: Ischial tuberoscity
Insertion: Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia
Innervation: Sciatic nerve (tibial division)
Action: Flexes leg, extends thigh

19

Semitendinosus

Origin: Ischial tuberoscity
Insertion: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Innervation: Sciatic nerve (tibial division)
Action: Flexes leg, extends thigh

20

Biceps femoris

Origin Long Head: Ischial tuberoscity
Origin Short Head: Linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
Insertion: Lateral side of head of fibula
Innervation Long Head: Sciatic nerve (tibial division) (L5-S2)
Innervation Short Head: Sciatic nerve (common fibular division)
Action: Flexes and laterally rotates leg, extends thigh at hip

21

Vastus intermedius

Origin: Anterior and lateral surfaces of body of femur
Insertion: Base of patella and to tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Action: Extends leg at knee joint

22

Vastus lateralis

Origin: Greater trochanter, lateral lip of linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Base of patella and to tibial tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Action: Extends leg at knee joint

23

Vastus medialis

Origin: Intertrochanteric line, medial lip of linea aspera of femur
Insertion: Base of patella and to tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Action: Extends leg at knee joint

24

Rectus femoris

Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum
Insertion: Base of patella and to tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Action: Extends leg at knee joint and flexes thigh at hip joint

25

Pectoralis major

Origin: Sternal half of clavicle, sternum to 7th rib, cartilages of true ribs, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Insertion: Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action: Flexes and adducts arm, rotates arm medially

26

Pectoralis minor

Origin: Outer surface of upper margin of ribs 3-5
Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Lowers lateral angle of scapula and protracts scapula

27

Peroneus brevis:

Origin: Distal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula
Insertion: Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of 5th metatarsal
Action: Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes foot at ankle

28

Peroneus longus

Origin: Head and proximal 2/3 of lateral fibula
Insertion: Plantar base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
Action: Everts foot and weakly plantarflexes foot at ankle

29

Platysma

Origin: Skin below clavicle, upper thorax
Insertion: Mandible, oral muscles
Action: Tenses skin of neck

30

Posterior scalene

Origin: Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C4-C6
Insertion: Outer surface of 2nd rib (behind attachment of serratus anterior)
Action: Elevates 2nd rib, bends neck

31

Pronator quadratus

Origin: Distal fourth of anterior ulna
Insertion: Distal fourth of anterior radius
Action: Pronates forearm

32

Pronator teres

Origin: Two heads: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
Insertion: Midway along lateral surface of radius
Action: Pronates forearm and assists with elbow flexion

33

Psoas major

Origin: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae, sides of bodies of T12-L5 vertebrae, intervening intervertebral discs
Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur
Action: Acting superiorly with iliacus, flexes hip; acting inferiority , flexes vertebral column laterally; used to balance trunk in sitting position; acting inferiorly with iliacus, flexes trunk

34

Rectus abdominis

Origin: Pubic symphysis, pubic crest
Insertion: Xiphoid process, costal cartilages 5-7
Action: Flexes trunk, compresses abdominal viscera

35

Rhomboid major

Origin: Spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae
Insertion: Medial border of scapula below base of spine of scapula
Action: Fixes scapula to thoracic wall and retracts and rotates it to depress glenoid cavity

36

Rhomboid minor

Origin: Ligamentum nuchae, spines of C7 and T1 vertebrae
Insertion: Medial border of scapula at spine of scapula
Action: Fixes scapula to thoracic wall and retracts and rotates it to depress glenoid cavity

37

Sartorius

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and superior part of notch below it
Insertion: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Action: Abducts, laterally rotates, and flexes thigh; flexes knee joint

38

Serratus anterior

Origin: Lateral surfaces of upper 8-9 ribs
Insertion: Costal surface of medial border of scapula
Action: Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall

39

Soleus

Origin: Posterior aspect of head of fibula, proximal 1/4 of posterior surface of fibula, soleal line of tibia
Insertion: Posterior aspect of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Action: Plantarflexes foot at ankle, stabilizes leg over foot

40

Sternocleidomastoid

Origin sternal head: Anterior surface of manubrium
Origin clavicular head: upper surface of medial 1/3 of clavicle
Insertion: Lateral surface of mastoid process; lateral half of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Action bilaterally: flex head, raise thorax
Action unilaterally: turns face toward opposite side

41

Sternohyoid

Origin: Posterior surface of manubrium sterni, posterior sternoclacular ligament, medial end of clavicle
Insertion: Medial part of lower border of body of hyoid bone
Action: Depresses larynx and hyoid bone, steadies hyoid bone

42

Sternothyroid

Origin: Posterior surface of manubrium sterni below and deep to origin of sternohyoid, edge of first costal cartilage
Insertion: Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
Action: Depresses larynx and thyroid cartilage

43

Stylohyoid

Origin: Posterior border of styloid process
Insertion: Body of hyoid bone at junction with greater horn
Action: Elevates pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking

44

Supinator

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna
Insertion: Lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius
Action: Supinates forearm

45

Temporalis

Origin: Floor of temporal fossa, deep temporal fascia
Insertion: Coronoid process and ramus of mandible
Action: Elevates mandible; posterior fibers retrude mandible

46

Tensor fascia latae

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and anterior part of iliac crest
Insertion: Iliotibial tract that attaches to lateral condyle of tibia
Action: Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh at hip; helps to keep knee extended

47

Teres major

Origin: Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula
Insertion: Medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action: Adducts and medially rotates arm

48

Thyrohyoid

Origin: Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
Insertion: Lower border of body and greater horn of hyoid bone
Action: Depresses larynx and hyoid bone, elevates thyroid cartilage

49

Tibialis anterior

Origin: Lateral condyle, proximal half of lateral tibia, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Medial plantar surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal
Action: Dorsiflexes foot at ankle and inverts foot

50

Tibialis posterior

Origin: Posterior tibia below soleal line, interosseous membrane, proximal half of posterior fibula
Insertion: Tuberosity of navicular bone, all cuneiforms, cuboid, and bases of 2nd through 4th metatarsals
Action: Plantarflexes foot at ankle and inverts foot

51

Transversus abdominis

Origin: Internal surfaces of costal cartilages 7-12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lateral third of inguinal ligament
Insertion: Linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon
Action: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera

52

Trapezius

Origin: Superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7-T12
Insertion: Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
Action: Elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula; lower fibers depress scapula

53

Triceps brachii

Origin Long Head: Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Origin Lateral Head: Upper half of posterior humerus
Origin Medial Head: Distal 2/3 of medial and posterior humerus
Insertion: Posterior surface of olecranon process of ulna
Action: Extends forearm at elbow; long head stabilizes head of abducted humerus and extends and adducts arm at shoulder

54

Zygomaticus major

Origin: Zygomatic arch
Insertion: Angle of mouth
Action: Draws angle of mouth backward and upward

55

Zygomaticus minor

Origin: Zygomatic arch
Insertion: Angle of mouth, upper lip
Action: Elevates upper lip

56

Flexor carpi radialis

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Base of 2nd metacarpal
Action: Flexes and abducts hand at wrist

57

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Origin Humeral head: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Origin Ulnar head: Olecranon and posterior border of ulna
Insertion: Pisiform bone, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal
Action: Flexes and adducts hand at wrist

58

Flexor digitorum longus

Origin: Medial part of posterior tibia inferior to soleal line
Insertion: Plantar bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits
Action: Flexes lateral four digits and plantarflexes foot at ankle; supports longitudinal arches of foot

59

Flexor digitorum profundus

Origin: Medial and anterior surface of proximal 3/4 of ulna and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Palmar base of distal phalanges of medial four digits
Action: Flexes distal phalanges of medial four digits, assists with flexion of hand at wrist

60

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Origin Humero-ulnar head: medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
Origin Radial head: superior half of anterior radius
Insertion: Bodies of middle phalanges of medial four digits
Action: Flexes middle and proximal phalanges of medial four digits, flexes hand at wrist

61

Flexor hallicus longus

Origin: Distal 2/3 of posterior fibula and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of great toe
Action: Flexes all joints of great toe, weakly plantarflexes foot at ankle

62

Flexor hallucis brevis

Origin: Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiform
Insertion: Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Action: Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit

63

Flexor pollicis longus

Origin: Anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Palmar base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: Flexes phalanges of thumb

64

Gastrocnemius

Origin Lateral head: Lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur
Origin Medial head: Popliteal surface above medial condyle of femur
Insertion: Posterior aspect of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Action: Plantarflexes foot at ankle joint, assists in flexion of knee joint, raises heel during walking

65

Gluteus maximus

Origin: Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion: Most fibers end in iliotibial tract that inserts into lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert into gluteal tuberosity of femur
Action: Extends flexed thigh, assists in lateral rotation, and abducts thigh

66

Gluteus medius

Origin: Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
Insertion: Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hips; steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

67

Gluteus minimus

Origin: Lateral surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
Insertion: Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hips; steadies pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

68

Gracilis

Origin: Body and inferior ramus of pubis
Insertion: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg

69

Iliopsoas

Origin: Superior 2/3 of iliac fossa, iliac crest, ala of sacrum, anterior sacro-iliac ligaments
Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur and shaft inferior to it, to psoas major tendon
Action: Flexes thigh at hips and stabilizes hip joint, acts with psoas major

70

Internal oblique

Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament
Insertion: Inferior borders of ribs 10-12, linea alba, pubis via conjoint tendon
Action: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera, flexes and rotates trunk

71

Latissimus dorsi

Origin: Spinous processes of T7-L5, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and last three ribs
Insertion: Humerus (intertubercular sulcus)
Action: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus

72

Levator scapulae

Origin: Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4
Insertion: Medial border of scapula from superior angle of spine
Action: Elevates scapula medially, inferiorly rotates glenoid cavity

73

Middle scalene

Origin: Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C2-C7
Insertion: Upper surface of 1st rib (behind subclavian groove)
Action: Elevates 1st rib, bends neck

74

Occipitofrontalis

Origin Frontal belly: Epicranial aponeurosis at level of coronal suture
Origin Occipital belly: Lateral 2/3 of superior nuchal line and mastoid process
Insertion: skin of frontal and occipital regions, epicranial aponeurosis
Action Frontal belly: Wrinkles forehead skin, raises eyebrows
Action Occipital belly: Moves scalp backward

75

Omohyoid

Origin Inferior belly: From upper border of scapula and suprascapular ligament, ending in tendon under sternocleidomastoid muscle
Origin Superior belly: from this tendon
Insertion inferior belly: to intermediate tendon
Insertion Superior belly: to body of hyoid bone
Action: Steadies hyoid bone and depresses hyoid

76

Orbicularis oculi

Origin: Medial orbital margin, palpebral ligament, lacrimal bone
Insertion: Skin around orbit, palpebral ligament, upper and lower eyelids
Action: Closes eyelids

77

Opponens pollicis

Origin: Flexor retinaculum and tubercle of trapezium
Insertion: Lateral side of 1st metacarpal
Action: Draws 1st metacarpal forward and rotates it medially

78

Palmaris longus

Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
Action: Flexes hand at wrist and tenses palmar aponeurosis

79

Abductor digiti minimi

Origin: Pisiform bone and tendon of flexor capri ulnaris
Insertion: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger
Action: Abducts little finger

80

Abductor hallucis

Origin: Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, and plantar aponeurosis
Insertion: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Action: Abducts and flexes 1st digit

81

Abductor pollicis brevis

Origin: Flexor retinaculum, tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
Insertion: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Action: Abducts thumb

82

Abductor pollicis longus

Origin: Posterior surface of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of 1st metacarpal
Action: Abducts and extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint

83

Adductor brevis

Origin: Body and inferior pubic ramus
Insertion: Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur
Action: Adducts thigh at hip, weak hip flexor

84

Adductor hallucis

Origin oblique head: bases of 2nd through 4th metatarsals
Origin transverse head: Ligaments of metarsophalangeal joints of digits 3-5
Insertion: Tendons of both heads lateral to side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Action: Adducts 1st digit, maintains transverse arch of foot

85

Adductor longus

Origin: Body of pubis inferior to pubic crest
Insertion: Middle third of linea aspera of femur
Action: Adducts thigh at hip

86

Adductor magnus

Origin Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity
Origin: inferior pubic ramus, ramus of ischium
Insertion Hamstring part: adductor of tubercle of femur
Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supacondylar line
Action adductor part: adducts and flexes thigh
Action Hamstring part: extends thigh

87

Anterior scalene

Origin: Anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C6
Insertion: Scalene tubercle on 1st rib
Action: Elevates 1st rib, bends neck

88

Biceps brachii

Origin Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Origin short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula
Insertion: Radial tuberosity, fascia of forearm via bicpictal aponeurosis
Action: Flexes and supinates forearm at elbow

89

Brachialis

Origin: Distal half of anterior surface of humerus
Insertion: Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
Action: flexes forearm at elbow

90

Brachioradialis

Origin: Proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Insertion: Lateral side of distal end of radius
Action: Weak flexion of forearm when forearm is midpronated

91

Deltoid

Origin: Lateral third of anterior clavicle, lateral acromion, inferior edge of spine of scapula
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Action Clavicular part: flexes and medially rotates arm
Action Acromial part: abducts arm beyond ignition 15 degrees done by supraspinatus
Action Spinal part: Extends and laterally rotates arm

92

Erector spinae

Origin: Posterior sacrum, iliac crest, sacrospinous ligament, spinous processes of lower lumbar and sacral vertebrae
Insertion Iliocostalis: angles of lower ribs, cervical trasverse processes
Insertion Longissimus: between tubercles and angles of ribs, transverse processes of thoracic and cervical vertebrae, mastoid process
Insertion Spinalis: spinous processes of upper thoracic and midcervical vertebrae
Action: Extends and laterally bends vertebral column and head

93

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Dorsal base of 3rd metacarpal and slip to 2nd metacarpal
Action: Extends and abducts hand at wrist

94

Extensor carpi radialis longus

Origin: Distal third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Insertion: Dorsal base of 2nd metacarpal and slip to 3rd metacarpal
Action: Extends and abducts hand at wrist

95

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
Insertion: Dorsal base of 5th metacarpal
Action: Extends and adducts hand at wrist

96

Extensor digiti minimi

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Extensor expansion of 5th digit
Action: Extends 5th digit

97

Extensor digitorum

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Extensor expansions of medial four digits
Action: Extends medial four digits, assists in wrist extension

98

Extensor digitorum brevis

Origin: Superolateral surface of calcaneus, lateral talocalcaneal ligament, cruciate crural ligament
Insertion: Dorsal surfaces of toes 1-4
Action: Extension of metatarsophalangeal joints of toes 1-4

99

Extensor hallucis brevis

Origin: Superior surface of anterior calcaneus
Insertion: Dorsal surface of the base of proximal phalanx of great toe
Action: Extension of great toe

100

Extensor hallucis longus

Origin: Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe
Action: Extends great toe, dorsiflexes foot at ankle

101

Extensor pollicis longus

Origin: Posterior surface of middle third of ulna, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Dorsal base of distal phalanx of thumb
Action: Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal and metacarpophalnageal joints

102

Extensor pollicis brevis

Origin: Posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Dorsal base of proximal phalanx of thumb
Action: Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint

103

External oblique

Origin: External surfaces of ribs 5-12
Insertion: Linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest
Action: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera, flexes and rotates trunk

104

Buccinator Insertion

Orbicularis oris

105

Buccinator Action

Compresses cheeks

106

Depressor labii inferioris insertion

Skin to lower lip

107

Depressor labii inferioris action

Depresses lower lip

108

Levator labii superioris insertion

Orbicularis Oris

109

Levator labii superioris action

Elevates upper lip