muscles and apllications Flashcards Preview

PHTY1200 - Analysis of movement of the upper limb 1 > muscles and apllications > Flashcards

Flashcards in muscles and apllications Deck (13):
1

Muscles of the shoulder girdle

Shoulder girdle to skull, neck and trunk
• Scapula to humerus
• Trunk to humerus

2

Shoulder girdle to skull, neck and trunk

Serratus anterior
• Trapezius – 3 parts
• Rhomboid major and minor • Levator scapulae
• Pectoralis minor
• Subclavius

3

scap to humerus muscles

• Deltoid
• Supraspinatus
• Infraspinatus
• Teres minor
• Subscapularis
• Teres major
• Coracobrachialis

4

Trunk to humerus muscles

pec major
lat dorsi

5

scap muscles

little redundancy (i.e., muscles which can produce similar movements when they work).
• This is very important as clinically it means that if a muscle becomes unable to function (e.g., due to nerve injury), the effects are significant to function of the scapula and therefore to the shoulder complex and upper limb.

6

Rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatus
• Infraspinatus
• Teres minor
• Subscapularis
• Maximal strength working off
a retracted and stable scapula

7

Action of long head of biceps

Tendon runs in the inter‐tubercular groove
• Stabilised by the transverse humeral ligament – SS and SS
• Becomes intra‐capsular and attaches to the superior labrum
• LHB, when tensioned, produces a downward and inward force on the humeral head.
• Thus assists in head of humerus depression and stabilising the humeral head in the fossa, preventing subluxation and anterior translation.

8

Action of deltoid

1. During early stages of elevation ‐ superior force decreasing subacromial space counteracted by rotator cuff contraction
2. At later stages of elevation ‐ deltoid increases compression, increases stability

9

Some clinical applications

Potential for instability
• Glenohumeral dislocation
Macro or repeated micro trauma can easily lead to dislocation/instability.
Often becomes recurrent. Most often anterior – GH joint.

10

AC joint dislocation

Reduced horizontal adduction
Reduced AC joint stability and therefore impaired coupling of movement between scapula and clavicle

11

Impingement

Many contributing factors including:
Anatomical factors
Shoulder girdle posture
Altered muscle control
Repetitive activity
Underlying instability
Bony spur - body grows bone where cartilage should be
• Alterations in any/combinations/all of these can lead to impingement of structures (e.g., subacromial structures).

12

• Rotator cuff tears

Due to trauma or degenerative
Often causes pain and loss of ROM and function. Altered control of humeral head position
side note: when rotator cuff muscles don’t stabilise position of HH, other muscles can

13

Take home message

Movement of shoulder complex takes place at multiple joints.
• Full available ROM of all joints is therefore necessary for full ROM and function of the shoulder complex and UL.
• Stability of the scapulothoracic joint and maintenance of scapulohumeral rhythm is imperative for functional movements of the UL as it provides a stable platform off which the UL can function.
• Disruption to components of stability at any of the shoulder complex joints can significantly impair functional movement.