Muscular System Flashcards Preview

A Level - Anatomy And Physiology > Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular System Deck (77):
1

What is a tendon?

A fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to bone

2

What is an agonist?

A muscle responsible for creating movement at a joint

3

What is an antagonist?

A muscle that opposes the agonist providing resistance for coordinated movement

4

What is a fixated

A muscle that stabilises one part of a body while another moves

5

What term is used to describe a pair of muscles that work together?

Antagonistic pair

6

What is an isotonic muscle contraction?

A muscle contraction where the muscle changes length during its contraction

7

Name the two types of isotonic muscle contraction

Concentric
Eccentric

8

What is a concentric muscle contraction?

When a muscle shortens producing tension
This produces the force to pull two bones closer together causing joint movement

9

What is an eccentric muscle contraction?

When a muscle lengthens producing tension
This resists forces such as gravity to control joint movement

10

What is an isometric muscle contraction?

When a muscle contracts but does not change length
Posture is maintained by muscles isometrically contracting

11

What does DOMS stand for?

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

12

What is DOMS?

Pain and stiffness felt in the muscle which peaks 24-72 hours after exercise, associates with eccentric muscle contractions

13

Where can you find the tibialis anterior
What movement does it produce?

In the front of the shin
It dorsiflexes your foot

14

Where can you find the gastrocnemius and soleil?
What movement do the produce?

In the back of the lower leg (calf)
They plantarflex the foot

15

Name the 3 hamstrings

Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Semimembranosus

16

What movements do the hamstrings produce?

Flexion and the knee

17

Name the 4 quadriceps

Rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus medialis

18

What movements do the quadriceps produce?

Extension of the knee

19

What movement does the iliopsoas produce?

Flexion of the hip

20

Where can you find the iliopsoas muscle?

In the front of the pelvic girdle

21

Where can you find the gluteus maximus?

In the bum

22

What movement does the gluteus maximum produce?

Extension of the hip

23

Where can you find the adductor muscles?

On the inside of the upper leg
From the pelvis to the femur

24

Name the three adductor muscles

Adductor brevis
Adductor Longus
Adductor Magnus

25

What movement do the adductor muscles produce?

Adduction of the hip

26

Where can you find the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?

The side of the bum

27

What movement do the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus produce?

Abduction of the hip

28

Where can you find the deltoid muscle?

I'm the shoulder?

29

What movement does the anterior deltoid produce?

Flexion of the shoulder

30

What movement does the posterior deltoid produce?

Extension of the shoulder and horizontal extension of the shoulder with trees minor

31

Where is the latissimus dorsi?

Side of the back

32

What movement does the latissimus dorsi produce?

Adduction of the arm

33

What movement does the middle deltoid produce?

Abduction of the arm

34

Where can you find the pectoralis major?

In the chest

35

What movement does the pectoralis major produce?

Horizontal flexion

36

Which muscle dorsiflexes the ankle?

Tibialis anterior

37

Which muscles plantarflex the ankle?

Gastrocnemius and soleil

38

Which muscles flex the knee?

Hamstrings
- biceps femoris
- semimembranosus
- semitendinosus

39

Which muscles extend the knee?

Quadriceps
- rectus femoris
- vastus lateralis
- vastus intermedius
- vastus medialis

40

Which muscle flexes the hip?

Iliopsoas

41

Which muscle extends the hip?

Gluteus maximus

42

Which muscles adduct the leg?

Adductor Brevis
Adductor longus
Adductor Magnus

43

Which muscles abduct the leg?

Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus

44

Which muscle flexes the shoulder?

Anterior deltoid

45

Which muscle extends the shoulder?

Posterior deltoid

46

Which muscle adducts the arm?

Latissimus dorsi

47

Which muscle abducts the shoulder?

Middle deltoid

48

Which muscle horizontally flexes the arm?

Pectoralis major

49

Which muscles horizontally extend the shoulder?

Posterior deltoid and there's minor

50

Which muscles medically rotate the shoulder?

There's major and subscapularis

51

Which muscles laterally rotate the shoulder?

There's minor and infraspinatous

52

What movement do the trees major and subscapularis produce?

Medial rotation of the shoulder

53

What movement do the teres minor and infraspinatous produce?

Lateral rotation

54

What movement does the biceps brachii produce?

Flexion of the elbow

55

What movement does the triceps brachii produce?

Extension of the elbow

56

Which muscle flexes the elbow?

Biceps brachii

57

Which muscle extends the elbow?

Triceps brachii

58

Which muscles flex the wrist?

Wrist flexors

59

Which muscles extend the wrist?

Wrist extensors

60

Name 2 core muscles that are particularly important to stabilise the spine

Transverse abdominus and multifidus

61

Name the 4 rotator cuff muscles

Supraspinatous
Infraspinatous
Subscapularis
Teres minor

62

What is a motor neuron?

A nerve cell which conducts a nerve impulse to a group of muscle fibres

63

What is a motor unit?

A motor neuron and the muscle fibres stimulated by its axon

64

What is the function of a motor unit?

It carries nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle fibres, initiating muscular contraction

65

What is an action potential?

A positive electrical charge inside the nerve and muscle cells which conducts the nerve impulse down the neuron and into the muscle fibre

66

What is a neurotransmitter?

A chemical (acetylcholine) produced by a neuron which transmits the nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft to the muscle fibre

67

What is the all-or-none law?

Depending on whether the stimulus is above a threshold, all muscle fibres will give a complete contraction or no contraction at all

68

Name the three muscle fibre types

Slow oxidative (type 1) (SO)
Fast oxidative glycolytic (type 2a) (FOG)
Fast glycolytic (type 2b) (FG)

69

What is a slow oxidative muscle fibre like?

It's rich in mitochondria, myoglobin and capillaries which produces a small amount of force over a long period of time

70

What is a fast glycolytic muscle fibre like?

It's rich in phosphocreatine which produce as a maximal force over a short period of time

71

What is a fast oxidative glycolytic muscle fibre like?

They produce large amounts of force quickly, but also have the capacity to resist fatigue

72

What is phosphocreatine?

A high-energy compound stored in the muscle cell used as a fuel for very high intensity energy production (atp-pc System)

73

What is mitochondria?

Structure in the muscle sarcoplasm responsible for aerobic energy production

74

What is myoglobin?

A protein in the muscle responsible for transporting o them to the mitochondria

75

Which type of muscle fibre would you find most of in an endurance athlete such as a marathon runner or triathlete?

Slow oxidative (type 1)

76

Which type of muscle fibre would you find the most of in high-intensity athletes such as 800-1500m runners or 200m freestyle swimmers?

Fast-oxidative-glycolytic (type 2a)

77

Which type of muscle fibre would you find the most of in an explosive athlete such as a 100m runner, javelin thrower or long jumper?

Fast glycolytic (type 2b)