Flashcards in Muscular System Deck (77):
What is a tendon?
A fibrous tissue that attaches a muscle to bone
What is an agonist?
A muscle responsible for creating movement at a joint
What is an antagonist?
A muscle that opposes the agonist providing resistance for coordinated movement
What is a fixated
A muscle that stabilises one part of a body while another moves
What term is used to describe a pair of muscles that work together?
What is an isotonic muscle contraction?
A muscle contraction where the muscle changes length during its contraction
Name the two types of isotonic muscle contraction
What is a concentric muscle contraction?
When a muscle shortens producing tension
This produces the force to pull two bones closer together causing joint movement
What is an eccentric muscle contraction?
When a muscle lengthens producing tension
This resists forces such as gravity to control joint movement
What is an isometric muscle contraction?
When a muscle contracts but does not change length
Posture is maintained by muscles isometrically contracting
What does DOMS stand for?
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
What is DOMS?
Pain and stiffness felt in the muscle which peaks 24-72 hours after exercise, associates with eccentric muscle contractions
Where can you find the tibialis anterior
What movement does it produce?
In the front of the shin
It dorsiflexes your foot
Where can you find the gastrocnemius and soleil?
What movement do the produce?
In the back of the lower leg (calf)
They plantarflex the foot
Name the 3 hamstrings
What movements do the hamstrings produce?
Flexion and the knee
Name the 4 quadriceps
What movements do the quadriceps produce?
Extension of the knee
What movement does the iliopsoas produce?
Flexion of the hip
Where can you find the iliopsoas muscle?
In the front of the pelvic girdle
Where can you find the gluteus maximus?
In the bum
What movement does the gluteus maximum produce?
Extension of the hip
Where can you find the adductor muscles?
On the inside of the upper leg
From the pelvis to the femur
Name the three adductor muscles
What movement do the adductor muscles produce?
Adduction of the hip
Where can you find the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus?
The side of the bum
What movement do the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus produce?
Abduction of the hip
Where can you find the deltoid muscle?
I'm the shoulder?
What movement does the anterior deltoid produce?
Flexion of the shoulder
What movement does the posterior deltoid produce?
Extension of the shoulder and horizontal extension of the shoulder with trees minor
Where is the latissimus dorsi?
Side of the back
What movement does the latissimus dorsi produce?
Adduction of the arm
What movement does the middle deltoid produce?
Abduction of the arm
Where can you find the pectoralis major?
In the chest
What movement does the pectoralis major produce?
Which muscle dorsiflexes the ankle?
Which muscles plantarflex the ankle?
Gastrocnemius and soleil
Which muscles flex the knee?
- biceps femoris
Which muscles extend the knee?
- rectus femoris
- vastus lateralis
- vastus intermedius
- vastus medialis
Which muscle flexes the hip?
Which muscle extends the hip?
Which muscles adduct the leg?
Which muscles abduct the leg?
Which muscle flexes the shoulder?
Which muscle extends the shoulder?
Which muscle adducts the arm?
Which muscle abducts the shoulder?
Which muscle horizontally flexes the arm?
Which muscles horizontally extend the shoulder?
Posterior deltoid and there's minor
Which muscles medically rotate the shoulder?
There's major and subscapularis
Which muscles laterally rotate the shoulder?
There's minor and infraspinatous
What movement do the trees major and subscapularis produce?
Medial rotation of the shoulder
What movement do the teres minor and infraspinatous produce?
What movement does the biceps brachii produce?
Flexion of the elbow
What movement does the triceps brachii produce?
Extension of the elbow
Which muscle flexes the elbow?
Which muscle extends the elbow?
Which muscles flex the wrist?
Which muscles extend the wrist?
Name 2 core muscles that are particularly important to stabilise the spine
Transverse abdominus and multifidus
Name the 4 rotator cuff muscles
What is a motor neuron?
A nerve cell which conducts a nerve impulse to a group of muscle fibres
What is a motor unit?
A motor neuron and the muscle fibres stimulated by its axon
What is the function of a motor unit?
It carries nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle fibres, initiating muscular contraction
What is an action potential?
A positive electrical charge inside the nerve and muscle cells which conducts the nerve impulse down the neuron and into the muscle fibre
What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical (acetylcholine) produced by a neuron which transmits the nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft to the muscle fibre
What is the all-or-none law?
Depending on whether the stimulus is above a threshold, all muscle fibres will give a complete contraction or no contraction at all
Name the three muscle fibre types
Slow oxidative (type 1) (SO)
Fast oxidative glycolytic (type 2a) (FOG)
Fast glycolytic (type 2b) (FG)
What is a slow oxidative muscle fibre like?
It's rich in mitochondria, myoglobin and capillaries which produces a small amount of force over a long period of time
What is a fast glycolytic muscle fibre like?
It's rich in phosphocreatine which produce as a maximal force over a short period of time
What is a fast oxidative glycolytic muscle fibre like?
They produce large amounts of force quickly, but also have the capacity to resist fatigue
What is phosphocreatine?
A high-energy compound stored in the muscle cell used as a fuel for very high intensity energy production (atp-pc System)
What is mitochondria?
Structure in the muscle sarcoplasm responsible for aerobic energy production
What is myoglobin?
A protein in the muscle responsible for transporting o them to the mitochondria
Which type of muscle fibre would you find most of in an endurance athlete such as a marathon runner or triathlete?
Slow oxidative (type 1)
Which type of muscle fibre would you find the most of in high-intensity athletes such as 800-1500m runners or 200m freestyle swimmers?
Fast-oxidative-glycolytic (type 2a)