Muscular system and Muscles Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Muscular system and Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular system and Muscles Deck (54):
1

Function of the muscular system

Movement
Stability
Communication
Heat Production
Control openings

2

Three types of muscles

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

3

What are satelite cells

Help skeletal muscles

4

Describe cardiac muscle

Striated
Short -> small segments
Involuntary control
Can't rejuvinate

5

Describe smooth muscle

Walls of blood vessles and hollow viscera
Small non-striated fibres
ANS --> involuntary control

6

Describe Skeletal muscle

Somatic
Voluntary control
Large and striated
Multinucleated

7

What are the 3 different types of connective tissue that surrounds skeletal muscle

Endomysium
Perium mysium
Epimysium

8

Describe the endomysium

Covers SINGLE muscle fibres

9

Perium mysium

Covers a muscle fascicle

10

Epimysium

Covers bundles of fascicles and becomes the tendon

11

What is deep fascia

tough layer of connective tissue underlying the loose superficial fascia of the subcutaneous tissue

12

Periosteum

Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bone

13

Intermuscular septum

Seperates different muscles

14

Fascial compartment

Separates different muscles with different functions

15

Retinacula

Thick, tight bands that hold lots of tendons together

16

Tendon

Thick connective tissue
Small origin
Provides great movement

17

Aponeurosis

Connective tissue sheet
Flat, broad tendon = shiny
Wide
Provides stability against which muscles work

18

Raphe

Connective tissue line where two muscles from opp. sides of the midline meet

19

Synovial tendon sheath

Connective tissue which covers synovial fluid that surrounds tendons of the digits

20

Fascial sheath

Connective tissue which wraps around vascular bundles
Loose

21

What are the different types of muscle movement

First order
Second Order
Third order

22

What is first order muscle movement

Greatest stability
Power and weight on opp. sides of the fulcrom
P----F----W

23

What is second order muscle movement

Greatest power
F ---W (Dwn) --- P (Up)

24

What is third order muscle movement

Majority
F ---> P (up) ---> W (dwn)

25

Fusiform muscles

Travel long distances
Clustered with others
Found in limbs
Eg. Biceps Branchii

26

Convergent muscles

Large cross section
Powerful
Eg. Pectoralis Major

27

Pennate muscles

Featherlike
Oblique
Strong

28

Three types of pennate muscles

Uni, bi and mutli

29

Parrallel Muscles

Parallel fibre
Eg, rectus abdominus and 6 pack muscles

30

Circular muscles

Usually surround an opening
Anus, eyes etc

31

How are length and range associated in muscles

The longer the muscle, the greater the range of movement

32

How are power and mass associated

The more mass a muscle has the more power it can supply

33

What are the three different types of muscle contractions

Phasic
Tonic
Reflexive

34

What are the two types of phasic contractions

Isometric and isotonic

35

What are isometric contractions

A type of phasic contraction
Muscle remains the same length
No movement
Eg. Liftina a load to heavy

36

What are the two types of isotonic movements

Conenctric and eccentric

37

What is a concentric movement

A type of isotonic contraction where
High muscle tension
Muscle shortens
Movements

38

What is eccentric muscle contraction

Type of isotonic contraction where
Muscle tension
Muscle lengthens
Movement
Eg. lowering a load

39

What are the four types of muscle actions

Fixator
Prime mover
Synergist
Antagonist

40

Describe the prime mover

Main muscles that does the actual action

41

Describe the synergist

Assists the prime mover

42

Describe the antagonist

Muscle that has to let go so that the primer can do work

43

Describe the fixator

Muscle that holds joints in place so that the primer can do action

44

Neurovascular hilum

Mouth where veins etc enter into the muscle

45

What is a fascicle?

Collection of muscle fibres

46

neuromuscular junction

the synapse by which Somatic motor fibres activate muscle contraction

47

motor unit

single motor neuron (in spinal cord ventral horn), its motor axon, and all the muscle fibres it innervates

48

What is denervation atrophy of muscle?

results when nerves that supply skeletal muscles are severed. This in turn results in result is flaccid paralysis

49

retinaculum

distinct thickening of deep fascia

50

Where are retinacula typically located, and what is their function

any region on the body in which tendon groups from different muscles pass under one connective tissue band.
protect the contained

51

What is meant by isotonic muscle contraction? How does it differ from an isometric contraction?

Isotonic - the tension in the muscle remains constant despite a change in muscle length.
Isometric - the muscle remains the same length.

52

concentric contraction

The force generated is sufficient to overcome the resistance, and the muscle shortens as it contracts

53

eccentric contraction

the force generated is insufficient to overcome the external load on the muscle and the muscle fibers lengthen as they contract

54

What becomes a tendon

Epimysium