Musculoskeletal Flashcards Preview

PATHOLOGY > Musculoskeletal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (60):
1

Multinucleated giant cells residing in Howship lacunae

Osteoclasts

2

Backbone of bone matrix is made up of

type I collagen

3

Woven bone

Collagen is deposited randomly (fetus, growth plates)

4

Lamellar bone

Collagen is deposited in an orderly fashion

5

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

deficiency in synthesis of type I collagen

6

blue sclera, small misshapen yellow teeth, deafness

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

7

Type I (Osteogenesis Imperfecta Tarda)

acquired mutation, mild
most common form, fractures in early childhood, XR shows old Fx

8

Type II (Osteogenesis Imperfecta Congenita)

rare inherited, Fx & bone malformations at birth

9

Death in osteoporosis pt is likely d/t

pneumonia and PE

10

Osteoporosis

imbalance between bone resportion and formation ↑porosity of bones

11

2 Types of Osteoporosis

age-related (low osteoblast Fx)
postmenopausal (high osteoclast Fx)

12

Osteoporosis S/S

fractures of the distal forearm, vertebrae or proximal femur, compression microfractures, lumbar lordosis, kyphoscoliosis

13

Osteoporosis Histology

excessive but proportional reduction in both mineral and matrix phases of bone

14

Osteopetrosis

osteoclast dysfunction and diffuse skeletal sclerosis

15

Osteopetrosis defect

defect in carbonic anhydrase II --> blocked matrix solubilization and resorption

16

Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Osteopetrosis

17

Malignant Osteopetrosis S/S

HSM d/t extramedullary hematopoiesis, mild cranial nerve deficits

18

Paget Disease (Osteitis Deformans)

hereditary disease of osteoclast dysfunction and matrix madness (high osteoclast Fx -> burn-out -> high osteoblast Fx)

19

Paget Disease (Osteitis Deformans) cause

fifth decade, may be d/t paramyxoviruses

20

Paget Disease (Osteitis Deformans) affects

long bones, pelvis, spine, skull, with bone becoming thick, soft, and porous

21

Paget Disease (Osteitis Deformans) Histology

mosaic pattern of lamellar bone

22

thick porous skull

Paget Disease

23

Paget Disease

Leonine facies (leontiasis ossea), skull invagination (platybasia), and femur bowing

24

Increased hat size

Paget Disease

25

Paget Disease bone findings

light, soft, porous, ossified, sclerotic bone

26

Paget Disease

increased risk for osteosarcoma

27

Rickets & Osteomalacia

vitamin D deficiency or disturbance in Vit D metabolism

28

rosary bead formation at costochondral jxn

Rickets

29

Long standing hyperparathyroidism can lead to

osteitis fibrosa cystica

30

Osteonecrosis

ischemia → infarction of bone and marrow

31

Causes of Osteonecrosis

fracture, thrombosis, embolism, blood vessel injury, ↑intraosseous pressure

32

Medullary infarcts

infarcts of cancellous bone and marrow, but NOT cortex (SILENT)

33

Subchondral infarcts

involve bony plates and epiphysis, but spare the cartilage

34

Osteomyelitis

hematogenous spread, majority of cases are d/t S. aureus

35

Osteomyelitis IN A SICKLE CELL pt

Salmonella

36

Osteomyelitis Histology

Bone fragment becomes devitalized and necrotic (sequestrum) + sleeve of reactive bone at periphery (involucrum)

37

Tuberculous osteomyelitis often involves

thoracic/lumbar spine (Pott’s disease)

38

Tuberculous osteomyelitis

miliary TB

39

Osteoma

benign bone tumor, face, Gardner Syndrome

40

Osteoid Osteoma S/S

painful tumors, release PGE2, pain relieved by aspirin

41

Osteoid Osteoma Histo

radiolucent nidus surrounded by densely sclerotic bone

42

Osteoid Osteoma affects

femur & tibia

43

Osteoblastoma S/S

dull, achy pain that does NOT respond to salicylates

44

most common PRIMARY malignancy of bone

Osteosarcoma

45

most osteosarcomas arise in

long bones (near knee)

46

Osteosarcoma genetic link

associated with p53 and RB mutations

47

Osetochondroma

cartilage capped outgrowth near epiphyseal growth plate of long tubular bones

48

Chondroma

benign hamartomatous tumors composed of hyaline cartilage

49

Ollier disease

multiple endochondromas

50

Chondroma typically affect

females, occur in 3rd-4th decade of life, metaphyses

51

Fibrous Cortical Defect and Non-ossifying Fibroma

extremely common congenital defects in up to 50% of children older than age 2, b/l, multiple, most spontaneously regress

52

Fibrous Cortical Defect and Non-ossifying Fibroma Histo

fibroblasts in pinwheel pattern

53

Fibrosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Histo

malignant fibroblasts in “herringbone” pattern

54

Ewing Sarcoma

highly malignant small round cell tumor, neural origin

55

McCune Albright Syndrome

Fibrous Dysplasia

56

Giant Cell Tumor (Osteoclastomas)

"soap bubble" appearance, aggressive benign, epiphyseal

57

Myositis Ossificans

develop in athletic young adult in high contact sport following trauma; usually found in subcutis or muscle of proximal extremity

58

Dupuytren contracture

palmar fibromatosis

59

Peyronie disease

Penile fibromatosis

60

rhabdomyosarcoma

most common variant is embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma