Musculoskeletal basics Flashcards Preview

A&P 1 > Musculoskeletal basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal basics Deck (72):
1

Inferior to the skull, 33 bones. First 24 are individual bones, two inferior bones are fused

Vertebral column
Vertebrae house the spinal cord. Sacrum and coccyx on the end.

2

Consists of 12 pairs of bones, and part of the vertebral column. These bones encase and protect the cavity.

Thoracic cage, protects thoracic cavity. Ribs and sternum.

3

Girdle with two bones which support the upper limb and anchor it into the trunk.

Pectoral girdle. Clavicle and scapula.

4

The upper limb. How many parts? What are they made of?

Three parts
Arm: humerus
Forearm: radius and ulna
Wrist and hand: carpals, metacarpals, pharalanges

5

Skeleton's most complex structure. A total of 23 bones.

Skull
8 cranial bones, encasing the brain
14 facial bones, framework for the face

6

This girdle supports the lower limb and anchors it to the trunk.

Pelvic girdle
Made of two pelvic bones and the sacrum, which are together called the pelvis.
Each pelvic bone itself is the ilium, ischium, and pubis fused together. The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones (coxal bones)

7

Lower limb

Three parts
Thigh: femur
Leg: tibia and fibula
Ankle and foot: tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

8

Forms the longitudinal axis of the body. Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.

Axial skeleton

Structured largely for protection, as they encase body cavities and protect the underlying organs

9

Bones of the upper and lower limbs, as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

Appendicular skeleton

Structured largely for motion and act primarily as supportive structures to which muscles attach.

10

Surface features-depressions, openings, projections.

Bone markings.

11

Clefts of varying depth in a bone; located where a bone meets another surface, such as another bone or a blood vessel.

Depression bone markings

12

Holes that allow blood vessels and nerves to travel through a bone; permit access to the middle and inner ear; encase delicate structure and protect them from trauma

Openings bone markings

13

Bony extensions of varying shapes and sizes; some provide locations for attachment of muscles, tendons, ligaments; some fit into depressions of other bones to stabilize joints.

Projection bone markings

14

Small, flat, shallow coned or concave surface where two bones articulate

Facet

15

Indentation in a bone into which another structure fits, flattened or shallow depression

Fossa (pl, flossae)

16

Narrow groove

Groove (sulcus)

17

Tunnel through a bone

Canal, see the end of the tunnel

Meatus, don't see the end

18

Narrow slit in a bone or between adjacent parts of bone.

Fissure

19

Hole in a bone

Foramen (pl, foramina)

20

Large, smooth, rounded end of a bone that articulates with another bone

Condyle

21

Narrow, prominent ridge-like projection on a bone

Crest

22

Round projection from bone's epiphysis

Head

23

Bony bulge adjacent to or above a condyle

Epicondyle

24

Prominent bony projection, often pointed and sharp

Process

25

Sharp process

Spine

26

Large projection found only on the femur

Trochanter

27

Long, low ridge on a bone

Line

28

8 cranial bones?

Four single bones:
Frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid
Two paired bones: temporal and parietal

29

14 facial bones?

Paired maxillary, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal conchal bones

Unpaired mandible and vomer.

30

Sharp ridges that form the superior and superiomedial boundaries of the orbit in the frontal bone.

Supraorbital margins

Along the middle is the supraorbital foramen.

31

Sutures of the cranium

Sagittal, coronal, squamous, lambdoid

32

The cranial base is divided into these three what, into which the brain fits snugly

Anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae

33

What are on either side of the foramen magnum, and articulate with the first cervical vertebrae?

Occipital condyles

34

Region of the temporals that is the bone's broad, flat surface. Zygomatic processes and mandibular fossae.

Squamous region

35

Region of the temporals that houses the external acoustic meatus and the styloid process.

Tympanic region

36

Region of the temporal bone that contains the mastoid process.

Mastoid region

37

Region of the temporals on the internal or medial surface, where it forms part of the middle cranial fossae, and contains four important features.

Petrous region.

Internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramen, carotid canal, foramen lacerum

38

A unique deep cranial bone that articulates with every other cranial bone.

Sphenoid bone.

Central body with sphenoidal sinuses and sella turcica. Greater wings with foramen rotundum, ovale, spinosum.
Lesser wings with superior orbital fissure.
Pterygoid processes.

39

The roof of the cranium that's composed of part of the frontal bone, the parietals, and part of the occipital.

Calvaria, cranial vault, skull cap

40

The skull's inferior aspect composed of portions of the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, and temporal bones.

Cranial base

Anterior cranial fossae, middle cranial fossae, posterior cranial fossae

41

What are features of the fetal skull?

Frontal suture (metopic suture)

Fontanelles: anterior, posterior, mastoid, sphenoidal

42

How many bones are in the adult and infant bodies?

Adults have 206

Infants have 300-350

43

Smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process

Trochlea

44

Deep pit or socket depression in the maxilla or mandible

Alveolus

45

Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure

Ramus

46

Small, rough projection

Tubercle

47

Large, rough projection

Tuberosity

48

Cavity or hollow space in a bone

Sinus

49

The places of contact between bones, bone and cartilage, or bones and teeth.

Joints

Arthrology

50

A joint that does not allow any movement between articulating bones

Synarthrosis joint

Functional classification

51

Allows only a small amount of movement between articulating bones

Amphiarthroses joint

Functional classification

52

Freely moveable joint, allowing a wide variety of specific movements

Diarthrosis joint

Functional classification

53

Joints fastened together by dense regular connective tissue. The bones are united by collagen fibers so no joint cavity. Most are immovable.

Fibrous joints
Sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses

Structural classification

54

Has cartilage between the articulating bones, with no joint space. Two types?

Cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses have a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage. Rib cage. Synarthrotic (immovable)
Symphyses have fibrocartilage as the main connecting material. Intervertebral joint. Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable)

55

Joints with a layer of hyaline cartilage on the surface of each articulating bone. Six features?

Synovial joints

Articular capsule, articular cartilage, synovial cavity, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels

Also adipose tissue

56

Type of fibrous joint in which the articulating bones are joined by a long membrane composed of dense regular connective tissue. Between radius and ulna, fibula and tibia

Syndesmoses

57

The synovial joint cavity is characterized by these features

Articular capsule (fibrous capsule and synovial membrane), synovial fluid, and articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)

58

What is synovial fluid for?

Lubrication to reduce friction and protect articulations.
Metabolic function by supplying nutrients like glucose and removing waste products formed in the joint cavity.
Shock absorption

59

A strand of dense regular connective tissue that connects one bone to another to strengthen and reinforce the articulating bones.

Ligament.

Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments.

60

A structural component of skeletal muscle composed of dense regular cartilaginous tissue that connects the muscle to a bone or another structure

Tendons. Stabilize joints

61

A synovial fluid-filled structure resembling a limp water balloon. May be attached to the articular capsule or completely separate. Found in regions of high stress

Bursa

62

Long bursae that surround some tendons in high-stress regions of the body.

Tendon sheaths. Protect long tendons as they course over and around synovial joints.

63

The inflammation of one or more joints, resulting in pain and decreased range of motion. The articular cartilage breaks down and the underlying bone is damaged.

Osteoarthritis: wear and tear
Rheumatoid arthritis: immune system attacks the connective tissues surrounding synovial joints
Gouty arthritis: excess uric acid crystallizes and forms deposits in the connective tissue surrounding a joint

64

Axis movements of joints?

Uniaxial
Biaxial
Multiaxial or triaxial

65

The usually less moveable, anchoring point of a muscle on a bone.

The end attached to the bone or structure that will be moved when the muscle contracts.

Origin

Insertion

66

The prime mover muscle that provides most of the force required for a given movement.

Agonist

67

Lies on the opposite side of its partner muscle, and tends to slow and oppose the action.

Antagonist

68

Muscles that work together with the agonist. They sometimes make a movement more efficient by stabilizing a joint, overlapping with fixators.

Synergists

69

Muscles that hold a bone in place, an anchoring function that makes movement more efficient and reduces risk of injury.

Fixators

70

Muscle with evenly spaced fascicles attaching to a tendon that is about the same width as the muscle.

Parallel muscles

Sartorious

71

A broad muscle that uniformly tapers to a single tendon. Triangular muscles sometimes.

Convergent

Pectoralis major

72

Muscle with fibers and fascicles that attach to the tendon at an angle in such that the muscle looks like a feather.

Pennate muscle
Unipennate, bipennate, multipennate

(fusiform is biceps brachii)