Flashcards in Musculoskeletal basics Deck (72):
Inferior to the skull, 33 bones. First 24 are individual bones, two inferior bones are fused
Vertebrae house the spinal cord. Sacrum and coccyx on the end.
Consists of 12 pairs of bones, and part of the vertebral column. These bones encase and protect the cavity.
Thoracic cage, protects thoracic cavity. Ribs and sternum.
Girdle with two bones which support the upper limb and anchor it into the trunk.
Pectoral girdle. Clavicle and scapula.
The upper limb. How many parts? What are they made of?
Forearm: radius and ulna
Wrist and hand: carpals, metacarpals, pharalanges
Skeleton's most complex structure. A total of 23 bones.
8 cranial bones, encasing the brain
14 facial bones, framework for the face
This girdle supports the lower limb and anchors it to the trunk.
Made of two pelvic bones and the sacrum, which are together called the pelvis.
Each pelvic bone itself is the ilium, ischium, and pubis fused together. The hip is formed by a pair of hip bones (coxal bones)
Leg: tibia and fibula
Ankle and foot: tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Forms the longitudinal axis of the body. Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
Structured largely for protection, as they encase body cavities and protect the underlying organs
Bones of the upper and lower limbs, as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdles.
Structured largely for motion and act primarily as supportive structures to which muscles attach.
Surface features-depressions, openings, projections.
Clefts of varying depth in a bone; located where a bone meets another surface, such as another bone or a blood vessel.
Depression bone markings
Holes that allow blood vessels and nerves to travel through a bone; permit access to the middle and inner ear; encase delicate structure and protect them from trauma
Openings bone markings
Bony extensions of varying shapes and sizes; some provide locations for attachment of muscles, tendons, ligaments; some fit into depressions of other bones to stabilize joints.
Projection bone markings
Small, flat, shallow coned or concave surface where two bones articulate
Indentation in a bone into which another structure fits, flattened or shallow depression
Fossa (pl, flossae)
Tunnel through a bone
Canal, see the end of the tunnel
Meatus, don't see the end
Narrow slit in a bone or between adjacent parts of bone.
Hole in a bone
Foramen (pl, foramina)
Large, smooth, rounded end of a bone that articulates with another bone
Narrow, prominent ridge-like projection on a bone
Round projection from bone's epiphysis
Bony bulge adjacent to or above a condyle
Prominent bony projection, often pointed and sharp
Large projection found only on the femur
Long, low ridge on a bone
8 cranial bones?
Four single bones:
Frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid
Two paired bones: temporal and parietal
14 facial bones?
Paired maxillary, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal conchal bones
Unpaired mandible and vomer.
Sharp ridges that form the superior and superiomedial boundaries of the orbit in the frontal bone.
Along the middle is the supraorbital foramen.
Sutures of the cranium
Sagittal, coronal, squamous, lambdoid
The cranial base is divided into these three what, into which the brain fits snugly
Anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae
What are on either side of the foramen magnum, and articulate with the first cervical vertebrae?
Region of the temporals that is the bone's broad, flat surface. Zygomatic processes and mandibular fossae.
Region of the temporals that houses the external acoustic meatus and the styloid process.
Region of the temporal bone that contains the mastoid process.
Region of the temporals on the internal or medial surface, where it forms part of the middle cranial fossae, and contains four important features.
Internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramen, carotid canal, foramen lacerum
A unique deep cranial bone that articulates with every other cranial bone.
Central body with sphenoidal sinuses and sella turcica. Greater wings with foramen rotundum, ovale, spinosum.
Lesser wings with superior orbital fissure.
The roof of the cranium that's composed of part of the frontal bone, the parietals, and part of the occipital.
Calvaria, cranial vault, skull cap
The skull's inferior aspect composed of portions of the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, and temporal bones.
Anterior cranial fossae, middle cranial fossae, posterior cranial fossae
What are features of the fetal skull?
Frontal suture (metopic suture)
Fontanelles: anterior, posterior, mastoid, sphenoidal
How many bones are in the adult and infant bodies?
Adults have 206
Infants have 300-350
Smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process
Deep pit or socket depression in the maxilla or mandible
Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure
Small, rough projection
Large, rough projection
Cavity or hollow space in a bone
The places of contact between bones, bone and cartilage, or bones and teeth.
A joint that does not allow any movement between articulating bones
Allows only a small amount of movement between articulating bones
Freely moveable joint, allowing a wide variety of specific movements
Joints fastened together by dense regular connective tissue. The bones are united by collagen fibers so no joint cavity. Most are immovable.
Sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses
Has cartilage between the articulating bones, with no joint space. Two types?
Synchondroses have a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage. Rib cage. Synarthrotic (immovable)
Symphyses have fibrocartilage as the main connecting material. Intervertebral joint. Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable)
Joints with a layer of hyaline cartilage on the surface of each articulating bone. Six features?
Articular capsule, articular cartilage, synovial cavity, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves and blood vessels
Also adipose tissue
Type of fibrous joint in which the articulating bones are joined by a long membrane composed of dense regular connective tissue. Between radius and ulna, fibula and tibia
The synovial joint cavity is characterized by these features
Articular capsule (fibrous capsule and synovial membrane), synovial fluid, and articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
What is synovial fluid for?
Lubrication to reduce friction and protect articulations.
Metabolic function by supplying nutrients like glucose and removing waste products formed in the joint cavity.
A strand of dense regular connective tissue that connects one bone to another to strengthen and reinforce the articulating bones.
Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments.
A structural component of skeletal muscle composed of dense regular cartilaginous tissue that connects the muscle to a bone or another structure
Tendons. Stabilize joints
A synovial fluid-filled structure resembling a limp water balloon. May be attached to the articular capsule or completely separate. Found in regions of high stress
Long bursae that surround some tendons in high-stress regions of the body.
Tendon sheaths. Protect long tendons as they course over and around synovial joints.
The inflammation of one or more joints, resulting in pain and decreased range of motion. The articular cartilage breaks down and the underlying bone is damaged.
Osteoarthritis: wear and tear
Rheumatoid arthritis: immune system attacks the connective tissues surrounding synovial joints
Gouty arthritis: excess uric acid crystallizes and forms deposits in the connective tissue surrounding a joint
Axis movements of joints?
Multiaxial or triaxial
The usually less moveable, anchoring point of a muscle on a bone.
The end attached to the bone or structure that will be moved when the muscle contracts.
The prime mover muscle that provides most of the force required for a given movement.
Lies on the opposite side of its partner muscle, and tends to slow and oppose the action.
Muscles that work together with the agonist. They sometimes make a movement more efficient by stabilizing a joint, overlapping with fixators.
Muscles that hold a bone in place, an anchoring function that makes movement more efficient and reduces risk of injury.
Muscle with evenly spaced fascicles attaching to a tendon that is about the same width as the muscle.
A broad muscle that uniformly tapers to a single tendon. Triangular muscles sometimes.